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*P|R.. GILLTNGIIAjM, in presonLing tliis Prospectus, begs to 
state tliiit he has had soine experience as a Surgical Mechanist 
in adapting avtilicia.! liiiihs and surgical appliances to the 

deficiencies and deformities of the lunn:in l)cidy,and altliough self-taught 
in this branch of usefulness, lie has boon singularl}- successful in some 
most hopeless cases ; lie therefore trusts that the success which has 
attended his eflbrts in reHeving human sufl'ering. tlic testimony and 
support received from the leading members of the profession, combined 
with the reports of the medical press, may in>ure him increru^ed 

In compiling this Prosjiectus, a careful selection of cases liiis been 
made so that sufTerers may see what is jiossilile to be done to meet their 
several needs. There is sc-ircely an amputatinn, it mailers not wliat 
kind of operation, but is desciibed and can lie succi'ssfully fitted with an 
artificial member. 

Not less important and successful are his Mechanical cases and the 
mechanism designed to meet the requirements of cripples. The most 
hopeless patients, that have defied all surgicul skill, have been materLally 
assisted, hence those who think iicir cuses doubtful may take coui-age 
and hope again. 

Further, Mr. Gillingliam wduld direel the attention of his patients 
to another matter which is too often lost sight of : that is, the Surgical 
Mechanist does not trade in Mechanism, as an ironmonger does in hard- 
ware It mattei-s not how beautifully instrunu'uts may be made, they 



are useless, and as so much waste material, without the mechanist's skill 
in adapting the same to his patients' wants. There are no tixed rules, 
as in ordinary business ; each case has to be made a special study, and 
is, therefore, an art. Those who devote themselves to this branch 
of usefulness alone know the anxious thought and nervous force 
required in difficult cases. So that it may be said that the patient not 
only gets the benefit of the mechanist's time and talent, which is capital, 
but he puts so much of his own life into each case. Thus, let it be 
clearly understood that, it is not merely the intrinsic worth of each 
instrument that is paid for, but the time and skill expended on each 

J.G. would also add that he feels personally indebted to those patients 
who have permitted him to set forth their names and cases in this 
prospectus. There are a large number of cases diffei'ent in character, 
onlv known to the mechanist and the patient, which from their nature 
could not be published, but reference is kindly permitted for the benefit 
and encouragement of others. 

N.B. — In publishing this edition 1 have given most of the old 
standing cases in preference to those of a later date, so that sufferers may 
see the result attending the most difficult cases extending over a period 
of many years. 



N INTllODUCING this edition of my new book, it may not 
be altogether out of character to say something about myself. 
Patients fi-equently inquire vv'here I learnt my busin&ss, and 
how long have I been in practice 1 When I inform them that I am 
self-taught, the question naturally follows, " "What led you to turn your 
talents in this direction ?" 

Upon this question I will first direct attention, by giving an answer 
to the same. We should not despise the day of small things, for it is 
impossible to say how a little thing may turn the whole course of 
our lives, and lead into very difierent spheres of life to that first 
determined on. 

My original business was that of boot making. I was brought up in 
my parents' old established business, and continued therein until twenty- 
five years of age, when I went to London to improve my knowledge of 
tlie trade, with the hope of returning to succeed to the business and 
carry it on, which for some little time I did. During my short stay in 
London I can remember well the shop windows of the surgical 
mechanists, but then I had not the slightest conception that my efibrts 
would ever tend in this direction, for I was an enthusiast at my own 

My attention was fii-st turned in this direction by a patient of the 
late N. Spicer, sen., Esq., of my native town, who required a moulded 
splint for hip joint disease, at whose request the splint was made. 
Some time after this my sister injured her spine, and I moulded on a 
similar plan a support for her back. My fii-st and second pieces of work 
are illustrated by engravings (page 41), taken from a photograph of the 
originals. Here the matter rested for a time. One day William 
Singleton, gamekeeper, in the employ of the late Lord Bridport, came 
into my shop to purchase some boots. Some time previous to this he 


had had the misfortune to lose his arm at the shoulder, whilst loading a 
cannon at the celebration of the wedding of His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales. 

After supplying his requirements, the conversation turned on the 
loss of his arm, and he said his lordship had made his case known in 
London, and nothing could be done for him. " Nonsense," I said, 
" take off your coat and let me see." I saw what he wanted and offered 
to make him an arm ; it should not cost him anything. I first went to 
see iSr. Spicer, sen., Esq., who with his son, N". Spicer, jun., Esq., had per- 
formed the operation. " It is no use," was the reply; " nothing can be 
done for him, you had better go home and stick to your last." 
Receiving little encouragement, I said to the keeper, " if you are 
willing I will try." The matter was decided. I sent for the plaster to 
take a cast, on which I decided to work. I .saw at a glance that if I 
could take a bearing on the (scapula or) shoulder, another round under 
the ribs, and a fulcrum from the opposite side, and free the axella and 
vessels of the amputated part from pressure, I should achieve what was 
desired. The arm was made and fitted; the keeper could lift a 
hundred weight or more, load and wheel a barrow, &c. I now took the 
keeper to the doctor as a surprise, buckled a strap round my waist, lay 
myself on the floor, and asked the keeper to pick me up with his crook, 
which he did, and carried me round the room, to the surprise of the 
doctor, who would not let me rest until I had taken the arm to London, 
and shown it to some few of the leading members of the profession, to 
whom he gave me introduction by letter. There was nothing remark- 
able in its make (iUustrated page 25), only in the principle of fit and 
adjustment. I took the arm to' London, and before calHng on the 
medical profession, I saw ten artificial limb makers, produced the 
keeper's photograph, and asked what could be done for him. " Not 
anything," was the unanimous reply, "there is no stump, and we can 
only make something to fill the sleeve of the coat." Now I began to 
perceive that I had produced something original. I next caUed^upon 
the profession. The first was the late Sir William Fergus.son. I gave 
him my introductory letter from Mr. Spicer. He looked at the arm 
and then he took a full length view of me. And with his broad, open 
chest, frank, genial and open countenance (1 fancy I can see him now) 
he said, " What are you J" " A bootmaker by ti-ade." " Well we 


could not send for a better man. But let me tell you this, the ingenuity 
that made that arm can make a leg." If I may use the words, I became 
then and there inspired. This was the key note to my future career. 
I was next introduced to Sir James Paget, who recommended me to a 
gentleman who not only had the arm removed, but the scapula (shoulder 
blade) as well. 

The remarkable phenomena connected with this case and the keeper's, 
led me to the study of Psychology, on which subject I hope at some 
time to publish a good size volume (see Synopsis at the end of this 
book). I returned home and soon had a patient with leg off within 
four inches of the body. By studying and following the lines of the 
natural leg I made him one in which he walked well, considering the 
short leverage. Another sufferer similarly situated, seeing my fii-st 
patient doing so weU, gave me an order for a leg. On its completion I 
took it to London, called on Sir William Pergusson, and told him his 
words had proved true, that I had brought him a leg. He then sent me 
to a gentleman who was in want of one. I took the order, and he was so 
pleased with it when fitted that he gave me an order for a second limb, 
and afterwards for a third. 

I then put a short advertisement in, and took in the Lancet and saw 
an account of a youth who had lost both legs at Lincoln, one above and 
the other below knee (case 1). It was stated that nothing could be done 
for the boy.. Seizing the opportunity I ^va-ote to Lincoln and asked that 
the youth might be handed over to me, and I would undertake his case, 
on these conditions, I would make him two legs he should be able to 
walk weU with. I would fetch him from Lincoln to Chard, and take 
him back If I failed in the case I was to receive no remuneration and 
if I succeeded I was only to receive the price of one leg. The youth waB 
handed over to me. On my way through London to Lincoln, I called 
on the late W. CaUender, Esq , P.P.C.S , and told him where I was 
going and what I had undertaken. He looked at me with surprise, and 
Lid how are you going to do it, they can do nothing for the youth m 
town ? 

Well doctor I am no match for you in argument, and all I can say is 
I can do it. But you have not seen the boy? Never mind, I can do it. 
Well, was the reply, if you succeed I shall have to call you up to 


London. The youth was brought to Chard, and in a short time put 
upon his legs. In a week he walked fairly well. I wrote to Mr. 
Callender told him I had succeeded. In a fortnight after the legs were 
fitted, the youth was walking with me in the streets of London. We 
were both introduced by Mr. Callender at the Clinical Society, George 
Sti-eet, Hanover Square. My next visit was to Sir W. Fergusson, who 
now saw a living boy walking up and down his consulting room with 
two legs — he was so delighted that he took us to King's College and 
introduced us to the students, ifec, &c. (see first case). The Lancet took 
up the matter and illustrated the case, so that I soon became popular. 
As the claims on my time in this direction increased I gave up my 
original business and threw my whole energies into this new sphere of 
usefulness. I had now to get a plant— forge, lathes, tools, &c., and 
learn how to use them. I soon began to work in metal, wood, plaster, 
leather and fabrics. So that after a time I could make almost anything. 
Some say this is a gift, but we all have talents and must cultivate them. 
I have found no Royal road to the successful results of this work, but I 
have attained them by hard and continuous plodding, close application 
and unswerving perseverance. I should not like to say. how hard I 
have had to work, but those who have accomplished anything have had 
to do the same. 

I started in life without anything besides a good home, and I had to 
sink my earnings for years to establish myself. Some of my difficulties 
are related at the end of this book in the Trials of an Inventor. Those 
inventions outside my surgical business, I wish I had never seen, for 
they took more out of me than I could aflferd. I was, however, led to 
them by the necessities of my patients— my Patent Combined Couch, to 
meet the needs of sufierers ; The Patent Radiator, whilst I was con- 
triving an arrangement for moulding surgical splints, and so on with the 
others. Twenty yeai-s have now passed since I commenced this work 
and when I think of the difficulties overcome, starting as I did without 
a knowledge of the business, my success is a marvel to myself. When 
I think of the thousands of sufiferei-s that have been helped during my 
practice of twenty years, I feel grateful to Him who has thus endowed 
me and directed my course. 

Having so far answered the question, "What led you to the 
business?" I may now answer another, which is put quite as often 


if not more so. " Why do you stay in Chard ; London is your field 1 
Why not go to town and make a fortune V As if making a fortune 
was the end and aim of one's existence. We cannot live without 
money, it is true, but it should be only a means to some great end, and 
if any man lives merely to make money, I say he has missed his mark. 
I have had some tempting inducements to go to London, but I have 
declined them. In my native town I had an aged parent, active in 
business (which .she would not relinquish), up to the age of ninty-one. 
I never cared to leave her, and no pecuniary consideration would have 
induced me to do so. Thus I am at Chard, and likely to remain. To 
increase my business beyond certain limits would be no advantage to 
me. Those needing help can find me out. Some of my patients have 
not found it too far to come from India, Africa, Au.stralia, America, 
and other parts of the world, to avail themselves of my services. 
Chard is not a large town, but in proportion to its size and population, 
with its factories and enterprise, it vies with other towns in the West 
of England. It is in direct communication with the main lines, and is a 
junction where the London and South Western and the Great Western 
Railways meet. Patients can come here from any part of the kingdom 
in a few hours. 

J. G. 


Ai'Liduial legs for amputation above knee . . 
Amputated through the knee joint . . 
Arliticial kneeling leg, with lock-knce joint 
For double amputations special quotation . . 
Artificial leg for amputation below knee . . 
Artificial leg for amputation at ankle joint 
Artificial leg for amputation at ankle joint, adjusted above 
knee . . 

Leg below knee with pin instead of foot . . 
Pin leg with ball and socket, lock-knee joint 
Pin leg above knee 
Foot and leg for Symes' operation . . 
Kneeling pin leg 

Artificial arms and hands, \vith various instruments above 

and below elbow 
Artificial arms above and below elboM', with crooks and 

instruments without hands 
A combined set of inslruments extending over the whole 

frame for paralysis . . 
Ilip instrument for injuries and affections of the hip joint. . 
Leg and knee instrument for knee disease . . 
Instrument for fractured leg or weak ankle 
Instrument for children with bowed leg below knee (paii-) . 
Ditto for children with affected knee and hip 
Rack and pinion boot for extension, or Talipes and turned 

feet . . 

Spine supports for lateral, posterior, and anterior curva- 
ture of spine . . 
Gillingham's scrotum truss 
Artificial human eyes . . 

Knee cap for fractured knee.. .. .. ..10s. 6d. 

J. Stringfellow's patent galvanic battery .. ..10s. 6d. 

Knife and fork combined, for paralysed persons . . 
Chest expander for round shoulders . . 

Gillingham's patent combined couch, -with head rest, foot- 
board, table, arms, and handles complete 
Spine or back-board chair, stained deal, in two sizes 

)> )i ,, mahogany 

Poraplastic felt jackets fitted . . 
Applying plaster of Paris jacket with vest . . 















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prices quoted may range higher or lower according to time and the 
difficulties to be surmounted. Patients often ask for quotations, but it should be 

i m T '^^'"i " '"^^'^'^ ^"'^ °^ ^ ^'^"^ °' instrument that 

18 paid for, but the Mechanist's skill and time la treating the case. 

Price LuU of Radiators for heating or for ^mulding »pUni» on application. 




All limbs and instruments to be paid for on being titted. Patients as 
a rule do not ask for credit. Bat experience has taught me that those 
who pay part, and wish for part credit, when they have the in.struments, 
thou<^h they cannot do without them, do not care to pay the remaining 
balance, therefore I cannot give credit. Further, in needy cases some 
responsible person must become security for payment. I have known 
several cases where money has been coUected and given to persons to 
obtain instruments, but the possession of the money has been such a 
temptation that they have spent it and never received the appliances. 

I have legs, arms and instruments which have been here waiting for 
years, because the money which had been collected and intended for 
payment has not been forthcoming. I do not like to state this, but it is 
nevertheless true. 


All orders must be accompanied by remittance before goods will be 

forwarded. . , • • r r j.u 

Patients visited, when business wiU allow, at a minimum fee of three 

guineas per day and journey expenses. 

Mondays, but in all cases patients should advise by letter prior to 


lys, but in all 



J.G. suggests that patients consult their _ medical advisers before 
applying for instruments, as he prefers acting m conjunction with them. 
He takes no responsibility when patients place themselves m tis hands 

Patients come to consult and for measurement, and pay a second visit 
to have their instruments fitted ; when they prefer to stay he will try 

and secure suitable lodgings. J.„l^„„„T^V, Tf 

Patients should keep their appointments, or write, or t^l^g^^P^' " 
they come out of order they cannot be promised attention, as they may 

interfere with others. , a,4i"firi*al 

Persons sufi-ering the loss of a limb s^iou d have an axtihcia 
member for some months, as the stumps shrink shortly f^l^'^'''^^ 
sequently the limbs will not fit and the sockets , he fitting 

stump should be well bandaged for a month or two before the fitting 

of a limb. 


Persons abroad .su/Tering from the loss of a limb, can have an artificial 
one sent to them on their sending for instructions for self measurement 
and for the taking of a plaster cast, but he takes no responsibility where 
appliances fail to fit, therefore the necessity of the most accurate 
measurements. Neither does he take any responsibility in transit All 
foreign orders must be accompanied by P.0.0. 

All limbs and instruments should occasionally have the joints oiled. 
Numbers of instruments are spoilt and joints comijletely worn out 
for want of oil, which, with proper attention, would have lasted years 

The wearing of all kinds of surgical appliances and limbs is very try- 
ing to patients at first ; they should be worn a few hours at a time, until 
a re-action has taken place and the irksomeness worn ofi'. 

J.G. does not spend time in experimenting on cases at his own risk 
Where there is a doubt of success he will not take any case in hand 
but when the patient has had the benefit of his time and skill, in oases 
of failure he expects to be remunerated just as if he had succeeded 

Sometimes it happens, that a patient becomes restored, or it may be 
dies, and the mechanist is asked to re-purchase the left-off appliances' 
J.G begs to say that he sells his time and skill. The intrinsic value of 
appliances is nominal, and he does not re-purchase left-oflf limbs or 
instruments, as when done with, they are simply waste material 

All surgical instruments should be looked to every few months and 
re-adjusted, more especially in children, otherwise to a growing child 
they will le,ssen the benefit they are intended to confer " 

When there is a breakage some patients will take their instruments 
with the idea of saving expense, to some country smith or mechanic • 
the result is these instruments are repaired as bent, and, unless they 
have the_ proper curves, they do injury. It is always wiser to pack 
them up in a ^vrapper and send them to the mechanist ^ 

J.G. has hundreds of patients over the country from whom he never 
gees a line unless they meet with a breakage : he would like to hpnr 
from them occasionally and know what progrefs they have made 

tJt^Zl '^^^^ '^^^ f-- 

'^'^n T'?, J^''?.™'' Saturday in each month, and may be 

consulted at Mrs. Doble's, next door to the London Hote and Stands 
the Taunton and Somerset Hospital the morning of the same day lit 
visits Weymouth the second Saturday in each month, TuriT. Mav 
June, July, August, September and October. Attends th; SanatoriumTt 
12 o clock, and may be consulted at Crabb's Commercial Hotel St Tw!! 
Street, from One till Four. Patients should adv^e by ^^^^^ 
wire, prior to visit. ^ ^ °^ 

Junction where the Great Western Railwav n^iH 
the Sou h Western Railway meet, and patients can come dl ect W 
any part of the kingdom in a few hours. 




Case I. — J. Pi-ingle, Lincoln, legs amputated by C. Brook, Esq , 
M.R.C S., London. This youth a fortnight after his legs ^vere fitted, 
was invited with Mr Gillingham to London and introduced by the late 
G. W. Callender, Esq., F.R.C.S. before the Clinical Society, October 
23rd, 1868 ; also at vSt. Bartholomew's Hospital. Introduced at the 
University College Hospital, by J. Marshall, Esq., F.K.C.S. ; at the 
Westminster Hospital, by C. Houlthouse, Esq , F.R.C.S. , at Guy's 
Ho.spital, by T. Bryant, Esq., F.R.C.S. ; and at King's College Hospital, 
by the late Sir VV. Fergusson, F.R.C.S., who said it was the only case 
to his knowledge of like nature on record. This case was engraved in 
the Lancet, Nov. 7th, 1868, and in the English Mechanic. The 
patient was received home at Lincoln at the drawing-room of J. 
Norton, Esq., by a number of gentlemen of that city. J. Pringlc 
could walk a distance of five miles with compM-ative ease and freedom. 

For Opinions of the Press see Next Page. 


" In The Lmicet of the 8th of August last we reported a case of primary amputation 
of both lower limbs after a railway injury on a boy of fourteen years of age, successfully 
peHormed by Mr. Brooks, of Lincoln, the right thigh was amputated in the middle 
third, and the left leg immediately below the knee. Mr. Gillingham, of Cliard, Somer- 
set, whose ingenious arm for amputation at the shoulder was noticed in The Lancet of 
January lOth, 1857, having heard of the lad's unfortunate condition, undertook to fit 
him with artificial limbs, so as to enable him to walk ; and those who witnessed the 
boy's performances at the meeting of the Clinical Society, on the 13th ult., well know 
how fully he has succeeded. 

On the right side the artificial leg consists of a leather socket for the thigh, hinged to a 
hollow leather leg, with a moveable wooden foot. The boy wears a broad waist-belt 
supported by braces over the shoulders ; and to this four steel spiral springs pass in 
front to flex the thigh, whilst a broad elastic spring behind extends the limb An 
elastic spring m the leg, and attached to the thigh-piece, serves to extend the leg ; 
whilst the tendon Achilles is represented by a strong steel rod hinged to the heel • and 
a spring controls the ankle in front. The weight of the right leg is 4jlh. 

below !f'fllfl'''''i ^vhere the knee-joint is perfect, hut with only one inch of stump 
tht %l -"^ ^^^^^^^^^ °f thigh-bucket on 

2nl t ' \ I' T^T^ m-a lace-up bucket, retaining the metal supports M-hich 

hinge to the_ leg at the knee. In order to assist the movement of the knee a broad 
spring IS carried from the leg to the thigh-piece, thus supplementing the action of™S 
extensors. The weight of the left leg is only 3|lb. e acuon oi tne 

The success of the apparatus in enabling the boy to walk is certainly remarkable. He 
can not only walk without sticks (at present somewhat awkwardly, but it must be 
remembered after only a fortnight's practice), but he can go up and do'wn stairs with 
the aid of one stick and the balusters. 

M^^'^T H^^}^^-- Gillingham has invented an ingenious ".go-cart," by 

m?^S£ trained to walk with the artificial limbs in less than a 5eek. Th^ 

tT/ nf "'"7^ '''^^ ^^'^"-^ ^ P^<i«^^t desires support withou 

le<.s ^ invc^'te? ITm "cmtr"^ ''^'f^f'^' admirable improvements in artificial 
-1 1 J Gillingham, of Chard, Somerset, and to the best of our ihilitv 

^onTSutaU^n^iFbo^; low r'""- ^ -""-^ itl ! 

B^n^^ p-^- ^^ssus- t£k i i £ 

he will rln n nrf l tfte fieaity thanks of the community for n-hat he has done • that 

): t^,T' ^-^ ^ion wk him."-^.,..;.T.;.s 

pro'^d'JcLnromySinTham^Te'^^^^^ Socibtv-T.vkxok Mbbtixo, 1870.-« The 
artificial limbs ave mo^tSir^d^^ «^ '^^='-<^. i° the shape of 

this dopartmen\^;^trptSrj:"t.^J2^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ cut off wa/ed at 

GlLLI^'GIIA^^s illustiiated prospectus. 



Case 2.— Mr. W. F. Jones, legs amputated by T. E. Williams, Esq., 
of Talgavtb, M.B.O.S. 

Bhecox, April 24tli, 1874. 
Dear Sir -I bave great pleasure in informing you that the pair of artificial legs 
you mad; f r me are a^ecided success. The medical f-^^--" ^^^'^''^^fj^ J ^ 
admit them to be the best that have come under their notice. I have "ovv ^ them 
four months and can perform many wonderful feats ^^'^^h them^ I an go out fishing 
cHmb a ladder, mount a bank, and walk up and down stairs ^^^^^.f V,?^ 
balusters and do a great many things I never expected to '^%X^^'^vTJZoZha 
without a stick, ^^"t I - -e f^^ agams, ^m^J^ ^J^'X 

on the ^fh o^B-mber I«73 Ihad 

my artificials fitted, after wearing them three monti-s I ^"^JII^ ^^3." ^^^^ 
and in three weeks could walk with one stick. I can walk 
and comfort. The people on niy retuni home, expectmg to see me on enU^^^^^^^ 
surprised to see me walk so well. Dear Su-, I shall use my best endeavours to recom 
mend all such cases that come under my notice. „„„tf„iw 

' ''"^'^inrnTShCK JONES. 

Note.-Afta- six y.ars of succ.ful .ear, Mr. Jonc. had 
to hi, legs, ,mrl was supplied u-ith a secoud pan, Auf/ust, 1880. Jir has von .«r« 
artijicialx fur If) i/eiirs. 




Case 3.— Mr. D.Williams, Llanelly, legs amputated by R.Samuel, Esq 
and R. Thomas, Esq., M.R.C.S., Llanelly. ^ 

Upper Park Street, Llanelly, 17tli January, 1874, 
Dear Jilr. Gilhngliani,— I am glad to inform you again tiiat I am highly pleased 
with my artihcia s, in fact, they excel my expectation. 1 am occasionally under the 
impression that they are my natural ones, and that in eouseoucnce of my beintr able to 
M-alk so-marvellously v,-e]l, also entirely free from pain. ' 

I am, truly yours, 


In December, 1886, the artificial legs M-ere fitted with t^ru new feet ; the legs hare 
now been m use 14 years. o '° 

"Mr. Gillingham has attained wonderful success in the fitting of artificial Ws 

Soeieu'iitb n?'- '"'IT^Z 'Tf ""'^^ ^^'"^ '^■'^''ibi °ed ftt the Clinifai 

aociet> Mithapa.rol legs tlia enabled him to walk after amputation of both limbs 

stood fn.lVTP'\ !l : ^''I'^e^"-"" lin^l^s, and it will readily be under- 

stood, fron that fact, that he is a con.plcte master of all the conditions on which 

/^^TgS, 1873!"'''"'''°^ °' "''^"'^^ ^"^^ depend."-J/../,V«; Pres. aJVcuf^r, 



Case 4.-Private patient. A case of natural deficiency. Born 
without feet and left hand. This patient rides and walks well, and 
follow his farm duties with ease. 


Five Bridges, Collumpton, July 22nd, 1875. 
breakage or repair from the time yon supplied them. ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

■ ' \y. r>AKER. 

To Mr. Gillingham. 

J. Gillingham would here note that case ^«^^^»'^%'^/Pf;\^[.±'^ 
There is no fixed rule, the art of manipulation to meet the nted^ ot 
patients' cases is the secret of success. 



Case 5.— Mr. IL Mussell, Alderbury, Salisbury. Legs amputated by 
W. M. Coates, E.<^q.. M.R.C.S., Salisbury, and recommended to Mr. 
Gillingham by Sir James Paget, F.R.C.S. 


Aluerhury, Salishuey, Nov. 1875. 
Ueaii biR,— I am very pleased with my legs, and should not like to be without 
them. I can get about pretty well. My parents are pleased to see me, expectin<^ me 
to be on crutches. I thank God I can walk without them, and hope soon to walk 
quite well. I must thank you for your kindness to me while With you. 

I remain, yours truly, 


(Note).— Where limbs are amputated from accident the stumps 
generally get healthy and sound, but when the amputation is from 
disease (in some cases of gangrene or scrofula) the disorder may again 
show Itself, and the stumps become troublesome. The above case 
furnishes an example after two years' use of artificial legs ; one le^^ had 
to be amputated a .second time above the knee, and at a still later period 
tJierc were two more amputations. 



[Patient over 60 Years of Age ] 

Case 6 —Mr. White, Fremington, Devon, legs amputated by C. H. 
Roper, Esq., M.R.C.S., Exeter. A few days after the limbs were fitted 
this patient appeared at the Devon and Fxeter Chirurgical Society, 
June 28th, 1876, and walked before the company. 

BicKixGTON, Devon, Feb. 3, 1878. 

Dear Sm,-rieascd to inform you the Artificial legs answ weU. I have now been 
workiiig t^-dvo months at my trade I stand at the anvil about mne ^^ours day to 
work. I never expected to uee the hammer any more. So I must tell you I am well 
pleased. I can wSk to our church, a nnle and half rom our ^^-^^^^^^^^^^l' 
miles), and not take any notice of it. Hope you will excuse my not wntmg before. 
Concluding with many thanks, &c. lOurs truly, jqjj^ WHITE. 

7, CuicuESTEn Place, Exetkii, July 13th, 1876. 
Deah Sin,-Beg to enclose you a cheque for your ac^count, with two guineas added 
as a mark of my approval of your skill in fitting John White, ^^.^^j. „ 

ours ai ^ y^^ noPER. 

Jn November, 188G, 1 mci Mr. Wlnte, at J)iekh,fflo>,, 
appeared stro,,:, a„d n-ell, Ihongh orcr 70 years of age He /'"^^ /^//W f/ b7Z 
Jears, working at the forge and anvil daU,,, and not unfrcqucntlg ho ualkcd to Ba,>, 
staple and bad:, a di-^tanre of six utiles. — J. G. 



Case 7.— The above engraving represents the case of S. Bishop, of 
Bridport, who was overtaken in the violent snow-storm of January, 
1881, on his journey by foot from Bristol to Bridport ; on arriving 
at leovil late at night, and getting no shelter, he continued his journey 
to Bridport ; on reaching Misterton he found liis energies exhausted, 
and took shelter, standing under a shed till early morning, when he 
made his way, as best he could, on two dead legs over hedges and fields 
to Bridport. On his arrival it was found that his hands and feet were 
80 severely frost-bitten that it was necessarv to amputate both legs 
and sevei-al ol the fingers, which operation successfully performed 
by Dr. Hay and his son. 

The following are extracts from Samuel Bishop's letters a few montlis 
§ it'll tllG ^^t?^ • — " I f^m doing well with my leefs, 

and 1 can now walk to the harbour and back, a distance of two mifes 
and half with the use of one stick." Later on he says can now 

walk a distance of six miles with very little fatigue, and at the rate of 
three miles per hour, carrying a basket with goods." Some months 
after Bishop walked from Bridport to Bristol on his artificial legs, 
average U miles a day. ^ ' 

,r>^!^S^huh!^M.Z' f^^-^-^''' r^'>'ff / had/rr^uenl!!, ''card hin, 



The Right Leg Amputated above the Knee the Left below. 

Case 8.-D. S , of L , who lately lost both her legs by 

railway accident. The above is engraved from photograph. As the 
Editor of the " Chard and Ilminster News" has given such a graphic 
description of my little patient. I quote the leader written at the time. 

extract from the "Charo and Ilminster News," 
November, 1881- 

.. ,p a, »= .re told, the age of miracles has ceased, the age of marvels eertamlT 
haenoi-so^e thoogM »b.n our attention «s called duHng the week to a«o,h„ 
r.„,arltable case j„st treated by 0,.r to„,n,ao, Mr. Gimogh.„.-«.al,i«g the ..mtb 
ittstane. i„ .-bich be h.e bad to supply t. o legs to p.tieots who must otherw.s. m th.s 
respect have re„,.i„ea piUahly helpless for life. The case of S.»„el Bishop, who lost 
both hi, legs belo. tb. knee by frost-hite, we noUced a few wect, ..nee »d U,e 
snccessfo. t„at„ent of if. our reader, will renre^hcr, also, the d.ffienU case of 
a, lad Mnglc, which year, ago e.,cited so much interest the profcron. 



that Mr. GilHngham was invited by the late "W. G. Callender, Esq., of St. Bartholo- 
mew's, to exhibit it before the members of the Clinical Society in London. His 
treatment was considered so successful that the Lancet devoted much space to it, and 
Sir "W. Fergusson and others openly stated that they had known no such instance in all 
their experience. The success just achieved by Mr. Gillingham he considers to be even 
greater than in any case he has treated, because of the tender age of the patient— only 
seven years. Even with an adult it must require all the tact and energy possible to 
overcome the difficulties of first learning to walk, even when the legs supplied are below 
the knee ; but with a child, who would naturally be disposed to resist rather than help 
the operator, the difficulty would bo tenfold greater, especially when, as in this case, 
an artificial knee had to be supplied to one of the legs, which would require intelligent 
use and control at eveiy step. Mr. Gillingham has, however, succeeded in furnishing 
two artificial legs, with all the ai'ticulations of the natural limbs, which, as a work of 
art alone, and apart from the adjusting we have witnessed, are models of skill ; by 
these the child is now enabled to walk in comparative ease and comfort with' the 
assistance of one hand and a stick, and slowly with two sticks, but the first few days 
of "drill," amidst tears and sunshine-as Mr. Gillingham putsit-were no less a trial 
to him than to his little patient. To lessen the difficulty of walking, Mr. Gillingham 
has, with his usual ingenuity, invented what he calls a "go-perambulator," combining, 
as it does, the advantages of a go-cart with the convenience of a perambulator in 
^.hich his little patient delights to give her doll frequent rides, every such treat to 
"dolly bringing greater ease and confidence in walking to herself. On Tuesday we 
had the great pleasure of witnessing the dear child's performance, and found it 
difficult to identify the bright-eyed, meny-faced girl we then looked upon, with the 
sadly mutilated figure which some eighteen months ago was snatched from between 
the railway carriage and platform at Eeigate, where the terrible accident occurred 
which necessitated the amputation of both limbs. We sincerely cong^tulate her re- 
joicing parents and friends, and also Mr. Gillingham, on this new trophx, not only to 
H^s genius, but to his tenderness of heart, which has enabled him to blar wi-h, and 
ultimately triumph over, the seemingly insumountable difficulties of the 

! case. 

Whc.^ home >he soon b an t go nfo L ltd' r'"''f ^^^ting-room. 
refused to u:alk with a Lck %.TZr J f: ; ^'"^ ''''^'''-'"> "'"^ times 

of her death. I consider tii» nv^ZlnlJZJ ': ^ ^-'eW.rnrr 

m>j gicatcst aohtcecmciit oirr seeming impossibilities. 



Case 9 — H J. Beseley, 9, Kelder-sfcreet, South Croydon, whose feet 
were crushed by a street roller. The mechanism of the legs illustrates 
how the case is met, that no pressure can be taken on the ends of the 
stumps, the stumps being too long for legs made after the construction 
of cases 6 and 7. Mr. Beseley m-ites-" I can walk about all day Avith- 
out being tired, and walk with ease a distance of six or seven miles. 
This patient was kindly helped and sent to me by J. Norton, Esq. of 
Lyndum Villa, Croydon. I mention this as it was through Mr. ^ orton 
my first patient J. Pringle, was supplied with two legs m 1868 ^then of 

The following is an article on amputations contributed by me to the 
Medical Annual for 1885, and illustrated by this case.— J • W.— 

"We have illustrated here the n.ode in yhich Mv G'^.^'^f Jj^^' "^thf^le^S 
artificial Hmbs in a case where amputation having been done j ust f °? ° .Ji^X a^e so 
sensitive stumps intolerant of pressure. It will be seen that art.hcial ^° 
made that no pressure whatever is brouoht to bear upon the stumps, and a successtui 
result obtained in a very difficult case." 

" The following remarks on amputations immediately above ^^^^ .'^'j'J, J^I^J'.^ 
surgical ^nM^s point of viev>, are worthy of attention. Mr. ,^ill_^°g^^^^^^ 
objections as foUoM-s : Firstly, because in too many cases there 

to make a good flap, and it not unfrequent y happens that llic f ""^"'Sj";/;, X, 
causes the%one to become prominent, this contmually irritates f;^;;!^;;' 
weight of the limb falls on the end of the stump, when it is cirncd fon^ard in wnlKin^ 



"2nd. When the articulating surfaces of the bones are removed, no bearing can bo 
taken on the end of stump, as in ankle joint operations. Thus it must bo taken under 
the head of the tibia, and in the cone of the thigh, as shown in the engraving. The 
stump is then suspended, but it frequently happens that there is a dragging of tlie end 
of the stump, and a tendency for the bone if not well rounded, to protrude through the 

" 3rd. "With an operation of this kind the patient cannot have what the mechanist 
would consider a properly constructed leg, there being no room for the ankle joint. 
The mechanism and springs being worked from the outside, makes the limb clumsy. 

" 4th. When the leg is amputated at the lower part of the middle third, downward 
from the knee joint, sufHcient tissue is then provided to give a good pad to the end of 
the stump ; it also provides a good lever to work the limb free from the annoyance of a 
long stump, and enables the mechanist to make a good useful symmetrical I'imb, with 
ankle centres, tendons, and springs, concealed within, which takes away the clumsy 
appearance, and is not so liable to breakage from strain. 

"oth. In throwing out these suggestions no objection is raised to amputations 
through the ankle joint, when the articulating surfaces of the bones are left, and a 
good cushion brought up fi om the heel, this makes an excellent stump, inasmuch as 
the patient is enabled to place part, if not the whole of his weight, on the end. The 
thigh portion, as illustrated in the engraving, is then dispensed with. 

" It may be noted that not a few have an impression that the weight can be taken 
on the end of stump, where the bones are cut through : this cannot be, without dan^rer 
and suffering to the patient— all vertical pressure should be avoided. The mechanist is 
aware that in conservative surgery the surgeon saves all he can, there being considered 
less risk, but the mechamst sees points, from a mechanical point of view and from 
difficulties experienced by the patient, which a surgeon at all times cannot, because not 
brought in contact with these facts. Thus the question arises, whether it is not better 
to amputate higher than the case illustrated, and what advantage is there really cained 
by amputating so dose to the ankle joint It may result that the patient has to 
submit to a second operation. 

Artificial limbs should not be fitted for six or eight months after amputation the 
muscles shrink, because their work is suspended, and the sockets taay not fit. 





Case lO.-This engraving ilhistrates a Congenital Case assisted by 
Surgical and Mechanical treatment. Both legs were amputated below 
the knees by Mr. Francis Bichardson Cross, F.R.C.S Bnsto Infirmary 
and Ophthalmic Institution. Two good knee joints (not utilised) were 
brought into use, and two useful stumps preserved, to which aitiUcial 
members were fitted. 



The right stump is 5 inches below knee, with bent tibica, which is met 
by a wedge pad ; the left stump, 7 inches. The artificial members are 
that of an ordinary leg, in height about 19 inches. The stumps follow 
the dotted lines. One week after the legs were fitted, with the assistance 
of an arm and a stick the patient could walk a mile ; since his I'eturn 
home he writes to say that he can take his daily walks, and on the level 
ground, walk without a stick, and this after a few weeks' practice. When 
it is remembered that the patient — 18 years of age — never walked from 
his birth, except upon his knees, and being deficient his right hand, 
was unable to cut his food at the table, which he can now most 
efTectively do with the aid of the hand, arm, and appliances 
supplied, no sufl^erer need despair. The patient has perfect con- 
rol of the artificials supplied, can walk up and down stairs 
dress and adjust his appliances without the aid of a second person 

ms is the SECOND TRIPLE CASE of a Me nature in which J. Q. has supplied 

My Deau GiLLixGHAM,-! am happy to tell you my legs aS'am^Ssw'welf ' I 
can take my daily walks and go up and down stairs without feeling any timidity" I 

rm^aToiSeS^ie."^ '"'^ '''' P^^" ^"^^^ ^^^-^^^ 

I am, yours sincerely, 

B. G. A. 


There are large numbers of siofferers on a-utches with a useless foot 
7J:7JT T ^^^'■^'^^'^^-^i^^.' <^^^PUtation, could be supplied with a 
useful stump to work an artificial member, and thus be rendered entirely 
^ndependent of the crutch. There are others, helpless in both leTfrol 
various causes loho, by surgical aid, could be supplied with two useful 
artificials," as m the illustration. ^ 



Case 11. — Private patient. Both feet and legs curved as dotted lines, 
and deficient the fibulas. This patient can walk and ride well, keep his 
position in the saddle when hunting, clearing all barriers. After some 
years' of wear the patient grew out of proportion to his limbs, and a 
second pair Avas fitted with equal success. 

Case 12 —Born deficient of the right thigh The leg supplying its 
. place follows the dotted line. The instep of the foot forms the patela 
of the knee and the toes work the leg. This patient also rides and 
walks well. 

Glebe Cottage, East Lambrook, Ilminster. 

Dear Sir,— I have much pleasure in informing you that the Artificial Leg you 
lately made f..r me is very satisfactory. Indeed, it is more serviceable than I could 
have expected, as my case is very peculiar, if not unprecedented. I was born without 
my right thigh, the leg being in place of the thigh. I can now, by the use of the 
Artificial limb, not only ride on horse-back, but ride with perfect ease. _ I sincerely 
trust you will meet with increased patronage, so that many others may denve the same 
benefit as myself. Yours truly, E.W. 

In August, 1887, I met Mr. W. at a Fete, the leg was still in use, and had served 
him- for twenty years. — J.G. 




In wi'iting this article, if I may call it one, for the better understand- 
ing of the subject, I will divide it into the following sections :— The 
human leg and its principles of construction. How and by what rules 
an artificial leg should be made. Amputations, and the points at 
which to amputate when the surgeon has the option. The construction 
of legs. And lastly, the fitting and adapting them to individual cjxses. 


The legs of the body correspond to two pillars, the heads of which are secured in 
(heir sockets at the pelvis or large basin which takes the abdomen. Upon the pelvis 
13 reared the spinal column and head. This upper structure is supporled by the leo-s or 
pillars beneath. Now, these two pillars do not run down vertically from their head 
or socket ; if they did the feet would be as wide apart as the hips, but the thighs 
from the hip joints diverge in towards the knees so that the knees almost touch. 
I his divergence or incline inwards is more in women than in men, as the pelvis is wider 
on account of the extra weight they have sometimes to carry. From the knees the less 
run down vertically, almost to the feet, so that when a man stands properly erect his 
feet stand pretty close together but to mak. the base firm the feet turn outwards to 
widen the base of standing. If you stand erect and bend the knee forward and look over 
It at your toes, you will hndthat the great toe is almost'in a line with the ouiside of the 
knee, 4eaving the foot part its width outside of the knee. These, then, are just the 
curves given to the natural leg that the gravity of the body may be well eustaiied. I 

omt, the centre of which is eccentnc-that is to say, the centre of the knee jo nt is not 
in the centre, but extends back towards the back of the leg. Thus when a mnn IVt^nH 
mg erect the swell of the thighs stand almost in a line wfth theZ'el i^Zho^^^ 



of the body falls in front of the knee centre, and the knee, so to speak, becomes locked ; 
thus he stands at ease in perfect comfort and safety. Tlie ankle-joint is a simple hinge 
joint with a little lateral motion; the toes also are a simple joint. The foot in con- 
struction resembles an arch, on the centre of which the leg bone rests. Thus the leg 
bone does not come down in a line with the heel ; if it did the foot would fall every 
time with a thump and jar -the whole upper structure ; but the heel, which is one of 
the abutments of the arch, projects back ; thus in walking the point of the heel touches 
the ground first and pitches at an angle ; thus the foot falls gently down and the jar is 
broken. As soon as the foot is flat the tendon Achilles draws the heel up and throws 
the body on the great toe, which becomes the pivot on which the body moves and turns. 
1 have given just in this simple way the construction of the human leg— what 1 may 
call its mechanical part, in which points an artificial leg is materially aff'ected, and the 
closer we keep to the natural limb the more perfect we become in constructing an 
artificial limb. 


An artificial limb for amputation above the knee should not be made almost straight, 
as many are, but from hip to knee it should diverge inwards and take the same lines 
as the natural limb. The foot, instead of being straight with the leg, should turn out, 
80 that when the knee is bent a part of the foot should be seen outside the leg (looking 
over the knee) ; if made straight with the leg the toes will turn inwards in walking 
when they should turn out ; the knee centre should not be in the centre, but extend to 
the back, so that when standing erect the gravity of the body may fall in the front of the 
centre to lock the joint and enable the wearer to stand in safety. _ If the centre of the 
knee be put in the centre of the knee the wearer cannot stand in safety, because the 
moment the gravity of the body falls behind the knee centre the knee gives out and 
down he comes, because there is no natural rectus muscle to help the knee. The 
ankle-ioint of the leg should give simple flexion and extension and all lateral motion 
avoided, as it gives an unsteady motion to the foot and is very liable to get out of 
repair, as the will has no power to control. 


The success of an artificial limb in a great measure- depends upon the nature of the 
operation. Bad operations and badlv-fittei legs are bad indeed— a man may as well be 
out of existence as to wear legs in constant miseiy and pain. The best place to ampu- 
tate when the surgeon has the option is at the lower pari of the middle third downwards 
from the joint (see cut No. 3). This leaves a good lever and stump for the patient to 
use the' limb and it makes a good stump for the mechanic to adapt his limb to. A 
stump too long or too short presents difiiculties to the mechanic and is always an 
annoyance to the loser of a limb. Long slumps come in the way of the mechanism; 
in short ones you cannot get sufficient grip ; some stumps have not much muscle and 
• the edges of the bone seem to be protruding through the skin. The bones in operating 
should be cut up so as to have a good cushion of muscle imder end of the bone, but the 
flaps not cut too high laterally. Some legs are amputated from disease, often scrohila ; 
the disease sometimes Ungers in the stump, which makes the wearmg oi a leg tedious. 


Different inakers employ different material and diflerent plans of construction; but 
the principle with knee, ankle, and toe-joints is much the same. Legs in general are 
made of wood, willow, nominally called cork, because of its lightness, the sockets of 
which are hollowed to tit the stump. But to the construction of my own manufactory 
I shall confine myself. No. 1 represents a section of my leather leg. A and O are^ 
leather buckets made of the best light ox-hide. The foot and shank D D are made of 
wood- willow. As my original business was working in leather 1 have a process 
whereby I can mould the hardest butt leather to the anatomy of the legs. slianfc 
D is secured in the leather calf bucket C. The tendon at the back G ^Y^^^^f 
binge, and is regulated by screw nuts and spring. F is a spring of /"f '^"^^'^^^'^^'^^^.f^ 
or a spiral spring, secured by gut to flex the foot. Thus, when the foot P tc^es 
beel, the foot falls flat; the pressure on the heel extends the foot ; w-hen the pre^^^^^ 
iB off the foot flexes, and the tendon Achilles supports the ankles and helps the heel up 


when standing on the toes. E the toes, a leather sheath to shape stuffed with horse- 
S This gives the creases in the hoot and takes away the woody appearance of the 
?oo 2 is the outside of the log. The thigh and calf .huck.t arc secured together by 
the lateral steels J. Jointed at the knee with catch joints, K is a laced tendon to save 
the strain on the knee-joint and prevent the click of the same. I is a spring which is 
regulated to hring the leg forward in walking and acts as the rectus muscle. L i. 
are where the straps are secured for fixing the leg. 


3 represents a leg for amputation below the knee, the bearing being taken in the 
taper or cone of the thigh, leaving the knee free to act without bearing under it and 
the stump free from pressure. The lower part is the same in construction as leg aboe 

^Tieg for anatomv or mechanism may be well executed, but if not well fitted it is 
useless For amputation above knee in some cases I take a cast of the stump without 
pressing the muscles out of shape. A socket is made on the cast ot leather, which is 
fitted into the top of the leg, No. 1 B. Great care is required in fixing this, or it wUi 
throw the leg wrong in walking ; thus transferring the fac-simile of the stump to Uie 
leg, leaving the end free from pressure and taking a certain amount of bearing on tHe 
sitting bone ; the leg is made to fit accurately and comfortably. 


J G 's Artiacial Legs are adapted to limbs amputated through the knee-joint, a 
useful operation which supplies a splendid lever, but one to which all other hmb- 
makers object because it does not suit their make limbs. If there is any advantage to 
he gained in any surgical operation it is for mechanism to meet that need, lor the 
Anglesea and other make limbs the leg must be amputated three or four inches above 
the knee. 

Note.— All stumps, from the joints upwards, should be bandaged for some weeks before 
having an artificial limb, especially the stump from the joint downwards. This will help 
to give firmness and reduce it to proper size, as stumps shrink more or less after the use of 
a limb a few months. Not unfrequently stumps will open and close after the stump is 
thoroughly sound to discharge some fore gn matter or piece of bone. 


A and B engraving illustrates the amputation of the foot. Stump 
A. — The foot is removed at the ankle, leaving the articulating surfaces 
of the tibia and fibula, the cushion at the back of the heel being 


brought up under to make a good pad ; tlm makes a good stump on 
3 the patient generally can bear his weight. When this cannot be 
done it is preferable to take the leg off at the dotted line 1 and not at 

''stump' B.-The front part of the foot is removed, leaving the heel 
and the waist of foot. This operation I am not favourable to ma.- 
nnb a. there are no flexors to counteract the tendon Achi les 
rsUn% the' heel is drawn up and the amputated front tilted 
down.causing the heel in some cases to project considerably. 

An improvement on this is an operation performed by B. Holt, Lsq 
V S senior sur-eon to Westminster Hospital, who sent me his 
S-ca^e! TnSeadV removing the wliole of the foot -^^^^^^^^^^^ 
heel to project as in B, the astragatus bone under the tf a lemoved 
and the whole heel brought under in a direct line w th the leg , this 
made a good useful stump the same length as the sound leg 

This amputation took place some ten years ago. I have "ot seen a 
ims amputctuii^ii ^ i cq? wbpn a voune woman called on 

case like it since until December, Ihb/, wnen a young 

Z to repair an artificial foot. On examining the «tump I found the 

heel had^een c^ried under and ^^ ^^-^^^^^^^'te::', 
fibula. Amputation performed by Dv. wuaer, 

"n°*e Wnd'cf leg and toot supplied for these opemtions. mere 
the heel' is Wt the artiScial foot takes more of a shpper form at the 
back of the foot. , . , 

■ with complaints I may say,befoie 1 do ""^ , • ^. Umb requires re- 

have the charm of remedying the defect a, 'l^^f 'J^^^^^^^^^ 

adjmtment, and this not unfrequently ; th^s ^s no Jyf^^^^^]J,ove knee. " There^ 
A patient came one day wUh a well-made leg ^"^/'''^^.^^i you to make me 

he said, " I have had that thing four years ""^J^^^^^^ i ^a little trouble, and 
another." Let me see where the fault xs. ^Z/^'-'' f j7„,S^( J^o do so. It u>as really 
,ave the patient a lUtle drill. Ee soon Z^rp^^^- n,. ^ the part of the 

■,u,t so much the maker^s fault as Yf""' ! S/Tl ^^u;, difficumes f though it 
patient. To be honest wMh other makers f^^ll^^^y'^^l^,^, tUem out of their appliance 
is the maker's place to put them right) 1 have naei peisu. 
for the sake of making another. 


Bouhk amputation below knee. 
Case 13 -Mr K. Woodward, ship's carpenter, on board the Sotroa. 
Wfrnea; A^laide, Australia, the ship was c^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
=i^g\t aW» tt|:? r able s.m^ an^^ sweep- 
ing a third overboard. While 1 was fitting ^J^'^S at Adelaide, 
Chard, Davis the able seaman was lying m the hospital A 
who when sufficiently restored came to England and I fitted mm 
an artificial leg and appliances for his arm. 



BiKKENHEAD, April, 1884. 
Dear i\Ir. Gillingham. — I dare say you will think I have forgotten you. I beg to 
say I am getting on well with my walking, but I e.xperienced a little soreness. The 
doctor says the stumps will get alright in due time, &c., &c. 

Believe me to remain, yours truly, 


Note. — Soreness will continue longer in so»ie cases than in others, sometimes pieces of 
bone will continue to work out for months. Much depends upon the nature of the accident 
or operation. In ca^es of emergency the Surgeon cannot at all times do as he would. 
Whei-e he wishes to save a useful Joint with a short stump and fiat sufficient muscle to 
make a good flap or stump. In other cases where there is plenty of muscle to make a good 
stump, after a time the muscle may shrink so as to leave the bone prominent necessitating 
in some cases (but rarely) a second amputation. I offer these remarks by way of explana- 
tion as these little troubles may arise in some cases a?id are entirely beyond the control of 
the Surgeon and Mechanist though they do their best for tlie patient. 

Double amputation at the ankle and below the knee. 
Case 14.— C.W.B. This gentleman his foot at the ankle some 
twelve years or more before he lost his left leg below the knee. When 
I fitted the artificial leg below knee he had been wearing a leg for ankle- 
joint operation supplied by a London maker, who kept it in repair for 
the moderate sum of £12 a year, and this sum had been paid yearly for 
twelve or thirteen years ! ! ! I will venture to say that the leg now 
supplied with the wear it will have, will not cost 10/- a year in repairs 
for the next ten years. If patients are so led away as to sign agi-eements 
to pay these sums (and not a few do this), all I can say is the matter rests 
with them. Mr. B. after amputation of the second leg with the use of 
the one artificial foot used crutches for three years, and was carried up 
and down stairs by his servants. In about two hours after the 
fitting of the second leg the servants came as usual to take him up 
stairs, when to their surprise he walked quietly from the room and 
walked up and do^vn stairs just with the assistance of the baluster 
When walking down he jokingly said to his helpers, " Now gentlemen, 
I shall not require your services any longer." I put it in this way to 
encourage the desponding, that they may feel what a privilege it is to be 
enabled to help themselves. Why state this ? Because it is the best 
evidence of perfect fit and adjustment. This patient was sent to me by 
T. Bryant, Esq., F.R.C.S. (Guy's Hospital, London). ^ 

n Feltham, Middlesex, March 30th, 1887 

Dear Mr GilliHgham.-My new leg is very comfortable I have not required to ease 
myself of it while in use. I do not go long distances yet, but can get up and do^4 
stairs very well, and am gradually getting over my timidity (and in I letter of eS 
date, " I am now getting on weU with my walking.") 

Yours truly, 


^ot long after this I supplied a gentleman with a leg, who was wear- 
ing one made by another maker, I found that he not o .ly gave a long 

iSd "a W T- P^^^"^ ^ for^epairs to 

mc ude a leg when he required it, but a patient starting with two 
artificials would not require another in 20 years. The leg wis 
well made, but. there are equally good makers who simply diar^e 
moderate prices for legs and repairs, and I venture to say that II 



you take my make legs one with tlie other, they do not cost the 
patients 10/- a yeax*. Some time ago when in town a leading surgeon 
said to me, why Gillingham I hear that leg makers do a good thing, 
very few medical men come up to it. What is that sir ? Get each 
patient to sign an agreement to pay £\0 or .£15 a year for repairing the 
legs. You have only to get a few hundred patients and you get a good 
standing income ? That does not fall to me. I speak of this matter on 
this wise : Some time ago I fitted a gentleman with a leg who naturally 
enquired the price of different makers, but it came to my lot to supply 
the limb. On one of the makers being informed that the patient had 
come to me, he wrote to say that he feared he had gone by way of 
" Cheapside." If patients agree to pay these out of the way sums, it 
rests with them, and not the maker. But why do it when you can get 
a good limb free from a yearly tax. 

Some time ago I was introduced to a gentleman who had lost one of 
his legs above knee, I took a leg of my own make for him to see. A 
good leg said he, but the price astonished him. What do you think I 
gave for the leg I have on ? I gave 50 guineas, and 50 guineas for the 
leg I have in reserve, 100 guineas for the two. 1 should have been 
pleased to make the two for less than £50, but if persons with plenty 
of means will pay such sums, the makers are only to pleased to receive 
them. When a contemporary gives a friendly turn on cheapness, 
I simply remind the sufferer that he can take his choice and pay a first 
class price if he thinks proper. 

41, Victoria Terrace, North Cvrry, February 2ncl, 1888. 

Dear Sir,— I have much plea.sure in telling you that the leg which you made for me 
hna more than realised my expectation. With it I can get over the ground at a fair 
•peed, and contemplate a walk of five miles without fear of greatly latiguing myself. 
It is surprising that so little discomfort should be experienced in walking with an 
artifi.ial leg. 

I am thankful for the advice that sent me to you. 

Yours truly. 

To Mr. J. Gillingham. T. STRANGE. 


N'ote. — Sometimes in hoi weather when there has been continuous walking the skin 
may excoriate, atid not xmfrequently on Jirst wearing a new leg. The best thing to harden 
and toughen the skin is Tannic Acid and Spirits of Wine applied with a little lint. It ts 
a well-known custom with many jockeys before racing to rub the legs with Spirits of Wine 
to prevent stripping the skin in rapid riding. 

Amputation at the Hip -Joint. 

Case 15.— This is a most difficult part to f't a leg to, there being no 
stump, and the hip-joint being the joint for locomotion. 

Mr. G. Mare (Leg taken out of the hip-joint) operation performed 
by A. J. Gumming, Esq., Exeter, M.R.C.S. 

Amputation at the Eip-Joint, fitted with pin leg. 

MoHCHAun Bishop, June 18th, 1879- 
Dear Sir,— I am getting on as well as I could wish with the leg, I will lot you know 
again shortly. 

Yours truly, 



Amputaticn nt the Ankle-Joitit. 

Case SAL-inuKN-hv-THE-SEA, May 25tli, 1868. 

I have much pleasure iu testifying to Mr. Gillingham's abilities My left foot ^vas 
amrutated at the ankle last year, by Perigroff's operation, and Mr. G.llingham has 
made me a foot, which enables me to walk with ease. The ankle movement h pe- fect 
so that lean go up and down hill without difficulty, and the foot has the additional 
advantage of being light in weight. In appearance it is everything to be desired, and 
I can stron-ly recommend it as being durable and not likely to get out of repair. 

Yours truly, 


In November, 1887, the leg referred to, came for repair, when I was reminded by 
the wearer that it was 20 years ago I supplied it. 

Ai)iputatioH at the Ankle-Joint. 

Case 17. , , o o 

Tkevecca College, July 'Ith, 1873. 

Dear Mr. Gillingham.— I realy feel quite ashamed that I have not written sooner to 

give you further particulars as to how 1 get on with the artificial foot, as I have by this 

time had the experience of a full year. I can say wdth certainty that it answers Us 

purpose admirably and that I have not the slighest inconvenience from it, in fact it has 

been of the greatest comfort ever since I became accustomed to it. I am now able to 

walk a distance of four to six miles with comparative ease, and although it has been in 

constant use, it is in very good repair. 

I am, yours truly, 


There are important points of difference between Mr. Letchworth's 

and Mr. Howell's. In the former (amputated by Sir James Paget) the 

articulating surface of the bones remains, the leg is adjusted below 

knee and pressure can be taken on end of stump. In the latter case, 

the ends of bone had to be cut from an injury ; and hence the weight 

is taken above the knee. 

(See article written for the Medical Annual.) 

Amputation through the knee-joint (leaving the avt icultinr/ surface of the FemorJ. 

Case 18. 

47, Dick's Place, Edinkuhoh, Nov. 11th, 1874. 
Dear Sir, — I am glad to be able to state that I get along much better than I antici- 
pated, I can now walk two or three miles with comfort. If you can make me another 
limb without requiring me to go Eouth I would like you to do so. 

Yours truly, 

To Mr. Gillingham. R. S. WAUGH. 

J. G. would here note that it is always wise to have two legs when 
the patient can afford it, and take one when travelling in a suitable 
trunk with clothes. 

The patient referred to (Rev. A. Letchworth) was one season a.scend- 
ing Mont Blanc, his guide coming on behind with a box Tourists were 
perplexed to know why it was taken up the mountain, and on his return 
it became the topic of converstxtion at the hotel, and it turned out that 
the box contained an artificial leg, which he had taken the precaution 
of carrying in case of a breakdown. 


* Amputation through the knee-joint. 

Case 19. 

Torquay Turkish Baths, June r2th, 1882. 

Dear Sir. — 1 have worn the artificial leg you made forme for the Ifst eighteen months 
with the greatest ease and comfort. I have walked for miles at a time without getting 
tired, and many who are ignorant of the fact can only notice a slight limp in my walk, 
thanks to your kindness and ingenuity . I pray that you may long continue to be a 
benefactor" to many sufferers like myself. 

I am, dear Sir, 

Yours heartily thankful, 


In December, 1887, a second limb was supplied. 

2^qIc — Some arlijicial limb-makers, those of the ylnglesea type, object to operations 
through the knee-joint, because it interferes ivith the tenon mid mortice knee-joint, which 
vecesxitates the thigh being amputated six inches above the knee. There is no 
difficulty with legs of my own co7istruction and it preserves a good lever. 

Case 20. 

Settle, August, 1869. 

Dear Sir,— The Leg invented by Mr. Gillingham cannot be too highly spoken of. 
When but six years old I had my left leg amputated a little below the knee, and from 
that time, up to the age of 18, walked entirely on crutches. In August, 1868, Mr. G. 
supplied me with an Artificial Leg which has hitherto e.xceeded my expectations. In 
consequence of the amputated limb being inactive for so long a period, I found learning 
to walk very laborious at first, but that scon wore off, and 1 ran now enjoy long walks 
v ith little fatigue. For comfort and appearance the leg is everything that could be 
desired in an artificial one, and I do not hesitate for a iiioment to recommend all unfor- 
tunates to patronise Mr. Gillingham. E.M.B. 

Twelve years after supplying the leg I met Miss B at Bournemouth ; the leg 

was still in use and worn with freedom and comfort. 

Cases and testimonials might be multiplied, but the selection given, 
with a few exceptions, embraces almost every form of amputation in 
operative surgery. 

Amputation above knee. 

Case 21. ^ ^ 

WiLLiTON, Somerset, Nov. 28th, 1886. 

Dear Sir,— The artificial leg you made me 17 years ago has succeeded well. 1 do 
not know how to express my gratitude. I have during that time earned on my 
business as dressmaker with ease and comfort. I can walk a distance of five miles witfi 
comparative ease, and shall be only too pleased to recommend you sufferers. 

Yours faithfully, 


About a month after I supplied this leg the patient met with a mis- 
hap and broke it in two pieces through the knee-joint. Since the 
repair it has been in constant use, with just the necessary attention. 
I mention this, as the best makers cannot guarantee anything after 
fitted, a slip may break either natural or artificial legs. 



AtHpulaLion below knee. 

Case 22. 

H.M.S. Formidahi.e, Portishead. 

Dear Sir,— The leg you supplied me with five years ago has answered well. I can 
walk ten tnile.s ano leel as if there was nothing the matter. The artificial has not 
chaffed from the first time I wore it. I would recommend poor unfortunates to apply 

to you. 

I am, yours truly, 


Ainputation below knee. 

Case 23. 

Queen'.i Hill, Giren-cestek, July, 1887. 

Dear Sir,— I have gi-eat pleasure in informing you that the artificial leg supplied 
gives me gi-eat satisfaction. I can walk with ease and comfort and follow my employ- 
ment with pleasure. It would take a close observer to detect it from my natural leg. 

Yours, truly, 


Mr. Cummings i.s an engine driver on the line. I supplied him with 
his first leg 14 years ago. He has held his situation, looking after his 
engine, getting under it to oil and do the necessary work of engine 
drivers. I supphed him with another new leg in July, 1887. lam 
giving most of my old cases in this book in preference to new ones, 
that unfortunates may see what success attends the use of the legs 

Amputation above knee. 

Case 24. 

Penrose Cottage, Wood Street, Tauntox, July, 1887. 

Dear Sir,— I find a great benefit from my leg and now get about with confidence. 
Hope you M'ill belong spared to help sufferers. 

Yours truly, 


Amputation above knee. 

Case 24a. 

HoNiTON, Nov. 29, 1887. 

Dear Sir,— I need scarcely say the leg has turned out a perfect success. 

Yours faithfully, 







Case 25.— W. Singleton, late game-keeper to the late Lord Bridport, 
arm amputated by N. W. Spicer, Esq., M.R.C.S., Chard. Amputation 
at the shoulder-joint, and illustrates the principle upon which the 
scapula arm is adjusted at the shoulder, so that the patient can Mb a 
hundred weight without affecting the amputated part. The arm was 
supplied without the hand. There' is nothing remarkable in the make, 
being my first limb ; the principle upon which it was adjusted is the 
leading feature in it. 




"The apparatus for the keeper, which Mr Gillingham has contrived, 
is most ingenious and praiseworthy." — Hie Lancet, October 13th, 1866. 

" We have had some artificial limbs submitted to us for our in- 
spection made by Mr. Gillingham. of High Street, Chard, Somerset, 
The novelty of these instruments consists iu the extreme lightness of 
the material employed, as also the manner of adjustment. We have 
notes of a case from which we make the following abstract : — A game- 
keeper, in the service of Lord Bridport, whilst firing a salute on the 
occasion of the marriage of the Prince of Wales, was ramming home a 
charge of powder, when it exploded and forced the ramrod through the 
humerus, causing so much mischief that it was necessary to remove the 
arm at the shoulder-joint, which operation was pei-formed by N. W. 
Spicer, Esq , jun., of Chard. The case was explained in London to 
several surgical instrument makers, but they said they could not adapt 
an instrument to be of any practical use, but could make one which 
would restore the natural appearance of the limb. By Fig. 1 it will 
be seen that there is no bearing to be had from any stump ; tl erefore 
the bearings had to be made from the sound side, as is well shown in 
Fig. 2. The instrument is adjusted by means of a kind of corset, 
which has a prolongation over the sound shoulder, as well as under the 
axilla. Such has been the success of this apparatus that the man can 
now raise as much as a hundred -weight, can wheel a barrow, carry 
water, and rest a gun while shooting."— 2'Ae Lancet, January 19th, 1867. 

N.B. — This was my first arm, and, strange to say, that over a period 
of twenty years I have not fitted a second for amputation at the 
shoulder socket. 


Are most useful when adjusted to arms for amputation below the 
elbow, but at best serve principally to restore the natural appearance. 
The best pieces of mechanism are poor when compared to the wonder- 
ful construction and adaptation of the human hand. Artificial hands 
are made to articulate at every joint. The appliances used, such as 
pen, knife, fork, or knitting needle, are fixed in the palm by a spring 
and the fingers set in their position. It is surprising with what 
natural effect an artificial hand can be used by an expert manipulation. 
For general work the hand is removed and various appliances fixed in 
the wrist. An artificial hand is of no practical good to a working-man, 
unless in some genteel situation, or to restore appearance when the 
work is over. — J.G. 

There is not anything more difficult to imitate than the human hand. 
A philosopher has declared that " It is the hand that has elevated man 
above all other animals ; that if we had been made with hoofs instead 
of hands we should never have risen above the level of the ox and the 


The monkey has a hand much like ours, except in the length of the 
thumb — in fact, he has four hands insi-ead of two — but he never made 
a tool, or applied his hands to any practical purpose, beyond the act of 
grasping a limb or holding a fruit. 

The constructive brain and the perfect hand are the distinguishing 
features of the race to which we belong, and all the progress that has 
ever been made in the world is the result of the combined and 
harmonious action of the brain and the hand. As the brain advances 
in intelligence the hand generally assumes new powers — not apparent 
Sn any change of its form, that was perfect in the beginning, but in the 
gift of adapting itself to the work which it is called upon to perform. 
Its sensitiveness of touch is wonderfully increased by use ; the several 
parts of the hand apply themselves to the work that is to be done with 
new facility ; the two hands learn how to play into each other to the 
best advantage, and acquire the faculty of performing feats which 
sometimes appear to be almost supernatural — the most complicated 
movement being done so rapidly as to evade the observation of the 
eye. Nothing could be more marvellous than the rapidity and accuracy 
with which the hand follows the direction of the brain in the per- 
formance of a rapid and complicated piece of music on the pianofore. 
Then again, the hand is, in some sense, a teacher of the brain — 
suggesting, by what it does, many other things which it is capable of 
doing, and so putting us upon the plane of further improvements. 




3 4 

Case 26. — One arm amputated from cancer, the other from the 
explosion of a gun Mr. C. Lush, Damerham, arms amputated by 
T. B. Rake, Esq., M.R.C.S., Fordingbridge. 


The above writing is a specimen copied from the original a few hours 
after the arms were fitted, and written without hands. The socket 
instrument was invented and designed especially for this case, which 
furnishes another illustration of the tact that is required to meet the 
needs of eveiy individual case. 



Continuation of C. Lush's Case. 

This patient, before arms were supplied, had to be fed hke a babe, 
dressed, undressed, &c. At the first meal after the arms were fitted he 
could use both knife and fork ; and without the assistance of a second 
person change knife for crook, pencil, or other apphances : he can also 
use shovel, hoe, (fee, when required. j . 

One engraving represents the adjustment of the crook and ring the 
other the pencil and the bookholder, with the patient m the act of 
writing as he would do when on the field surveying. 

The Old House, Fordingbkidge, Salisbury, April 12tli, 1878. 
DB.R SzR,-c': l\swS oVme this xnomi.^ "^"krt^^' hS%Xl^^^^^^^^^^ 
I am very mucli gratified at the successful results of your ^ffo^s on behalt and i 
think h'feels that he has reason to, that his money is ;;;<'ll,fP;^f ' 
indehted to you not only for your hospitality, but also for .^.^ « ^"^f^ P™"J Jl™e 
you have taLu in his cLe. When opportunity offers it will be at toe; ^^^'^'^ 
and satisfaction to me to recommend patients -needing mechanical appliances your 

I am, dear Sir, faithfully ^our^, ^^^^ 

To Mr. Gillingham, 






8 9 

Case 27. — Lost both arms in a steam chaff-cutter. This is the third 
double amputation of the same kind — one hand is caught, the other is 
instant to the rescue and shares the same fate. The patient follows the 
business of greengrocer, and is provided with scoop and various appli- 
ances suited to his case one appliance for picking up articles opened by 
the means of a cord round the neck. (The stumps follow the dotted 

Long Load, neak Langpokt, December loth, 1884. 
Dear Sir, —In reply to your enquiries I will just say how far my artificial arms help 
me. I can feed myself and help myself for most purposes, can wheel a barrow, get 
about with my cart, change my knife for crook, or any of the appliances vice vema. 
I gathered a basket of sticks one day for my wife with my finger and thumb, &c. (this 
is the bpring clip that is worked from the neck with cord). Very sorry for the other 
poor fellow, more unfortunate than myself. Hope this report will encourage him. 

Yours respectfully, 

Case 28, Engraving 9. — I will here furnish a paragraph from the 
Local Press : 

Mr. GilHngham has lately had his ingenuity most painfully taxed by a case which 
several years ago he regarded as so hopelessly difficult that he felt compelled to decline 
it. It is that of a young man who about eight years ago fell from a fore horse which 



he was riding, under a reaping machine, the result being that botli his arms were in an 
instant cut off, the one at the shoul icr, the otlier only a few inches below. A worse 
case from an operator a point of view, could hardly be conceived, as no stumps or 
levclagc remained with which to work the arms if sujjplied. Mr. Gillinghain has, 
however, fitted two arms with elbow-joints, raised by indirect action ; in the wrist of 
each is a socket into which can be placed various appliances such as crook, knife or 
fork, loadstone, &c. This the patient mana^'cs to do, without aid, by taking up the 
article needed with his mouth and then placing it in the socket which is so constructed 
that with slight pressure it both receives and tixcs it sufficiently firm for u-e. 'ihe 
arms thus fitted supply the place of the missing limbs so far as appearance is concerned, 
and-afford the means of doing many things which otherwise would be utterly impos- 
sible. We had an opportunity of seeing to what an astonishing degree the mouth may 
become a helper in such an emergency ; the patient was not only in prospect of soon 
«,being able with comparative ease to "fix the appliances mentioned, but had for years 
been^in the habit of so holding and guiding a pencil in his mouth as to write a very fair 
hand. Mr. Gillingham has probably done all that could be done in the case, but is no 
doubt, painfully realising how little, at the very best, can io some cases be effected. 

Paston, near Walsham, Norfolk, August 6th, 1885. 
Dear Sir,— 1 now take the pleasure of writing a few lines ; I am sorry I have 
delayed it so long. The truth is I thought I would try my arms and see what benefit 
they are to me. I find they are a great deal of use. But I fear 1 shall have to gel the 
bone taken off the stump, the pressure is so great when I raise the arm. I am truly 
grateful for what yo.i did for me. 

Yours truly, 


The stumps follow the dotted lines. The muscle had so shrunk when 
the arms were fitted that the point of the humerus was through. _ This 
may occur with any limb and necessitate a second operation to facilitate 
the wear with comfort. 

The arms in this case were mostly of use in lifting from the shoulder, 
and they were raised at the elbow at right angles by a jerk from the 
shoulder and kept there by a spring similar to that at the back of a 
pocket knife, which spring acted on a square joint to keep it, a like jerk 
lowered it. Thus a patient with both arms off at the shoulder, could 
raise both his arms at right angles without assistance, and fix knife, 
fork, crook, ring, or any of the appliances, with or without the mouth, 
and without the assistance of a second person. 





Case 29.— Master D . Natural deficiency. Born without the 

left hand and arm three inches from the elbow-joint, the dotted line in 
engraving indicates the length of stump. The right arm deficient, the 
fingers in a line with the palm, leaving short stump of thumb, which is 
illustrated in the cast under engi-aving No. 24. In most^ cases of 
natural deficiency, nature is so compensatory that the patients can 
generally do more for themselves than the mechanist can do for them. 
1 have seen several cases where patients were born deficient of both 
arms yet could write, draw, shave, thread needles, knit, load and 
fire a gun, and use a pair of scissors with their feet with facility. This 
is more than can be accomplished with the best artificial members ever 
constructed. This patient, previous to present arrangements, wrote well 
by holding the pen between his two stumps, in like manner he held a 
knife or fork, or steering with his mouth. 

The sheath on the cast of the right arm has an arrangement for fixing 
and using tools without the hand, so that t'ney may be removed and 
replaced at will without the aid of a second pei'son. The ai-rangement 
for fixing tools in the left arm is like the one represented in the of 
C. Lush (page 28). Appliances — knives, forks, crooks, hand-vice, load- 
stone, hammer, <fcc. The right hand is so placed that it pronates and 
supinates like the natural hand, and the stump of the thumb is utilized 
so that things may be held and taken between the thumb and index- 
finger. The patient writes well with the hand though he has had but 
little practice. 

yote. — The difficulty with most of thene canes is, they can generally do more for them- 
selves than the mechanist can do for them, and unless old enough to feel their position it is 
not inse to ft artijicials till that age is come. 




"We have iust been favoured with an opportunity of witnessing another triumph of 

i, .S3.d by which a variety of otler ^P'''""^' ^^eS To Sefl stump 
ch Jge the oie or tie other .t to o™ e .od jj.^'^ent, can b'e 

an am and hand are supplied by -which a toiie and lo« or ^ remOTed, 

held, and either removed or ™PS'i"\rf .^J trSS volu. a^^^^^^^^ according 
for .hich case -«te' P™j;f ■> ^,tv ™ si se™o of these totrument. in use, 
to the special need ot tne patieni. »» e uar J ^^oo+^^p ti'll nuite recentlv, were 

and remembering that there had been PJ^^^J^f ^"^^ practice iill'bring 

surprised at facihty a^ea 7^ acq^^^^^^^^ f the 

increased facility, if not pleasure, m au understand Mr. 

natural appearance of the hands must J'^^.^^^g Jputated cases to deal 

Gillingham when he states that ^^.^ to which 

with than those of patients bom without 1^^^^' f/J^Xinf rather hamper him, by 
the latter are drh;en to ^fV ^^^lolZ^^^ -q~(s (f 

rS^irJumstreTln ^Icttherare placed. J^^J^that in th^^^ c., all 

for his owTi - 

others.— CTiarrf and Ilminster News 


. Cases 30 ^ 31.-Both sufferers, J. Y and M^C, "^^tZ'l^^^ 
about the same time, having both lost their hands and arms m steam 



cutters, and were fitted with similar appliances to C. Lusli, as represented 
in engraving 18. lb is time that these ugly knives were shielded and 
guarded to preveul. the fingers being drawn into the knives and feed. 
I have made more arms for working men, who have lost them by chaff- 
cutters, than from any other accident. They should be kept out of the 
way, and locked when not in use, where there are children. 


Case 32.— Major L. — The elbow joint in this gentleman's case was 
partly carried away by a bullet in a scrimmage with some of the hill-men 
in India, which injury led to the removal of the elbow-joint, the heads of 
the humerus and ulna being removed. This operation left a useful fore- 
arm and hand, but the joint being removed there was no power to raise 
the hand and fore-arm. To meet the case, an artificial elbow- joint was 
supplied in the form of two lateral steels, fixed to a sheath and jointed 
at the elbow. The elbow-joint was supplied with a lock By a slight 
motion of the arm it was raised to a right angle and locked, and by 
pressure at the side of the body the arm dropped at will. After the 
fitting of this apparatus the patient returned to India, joined his regi- 
ment, and entered into several engagements in the Afghan war. 



Case 33. — Mr. Hawkins, plate-layer, on the Great Western Line 
(Taunton). The arm in this case was crushed by accident just above the 
elbow-joint, the bone so severely shattered that it never united ; to save 
amputation and secure a useful hand and fore- arm, a sheath was made to 
envelope the whole of the fore and higher arm, extending from wrist to 
shoulder. The elbow-joint was then set, and secured at a convenient 
angle, by two lateral steels, not jointed (as in the previous case referred 
to). With this arrangement, which was adjusted over the shoulder, the 
arm was set, and thus a good useful fore-arm and hand were secured, 
which is preferable to the best artificial that could possibly be produced. 

No. 3, PoRTMAN Street, Taunton, July ISth, 1882. 
Dear biR,— I have much pleasure in bearing testimony to the valuable service you 
have rendered to me. Foiir years ago I met with a railway accident which crushed my 
arm and caused a portion of the bone to be taken out above the elbow, when you 
undertook to make me a case, which has proved a success, and since then I have been 
able to lift nearly as much with that arm as I can with the other. 

Tours truly, 


I saw Mr. Hawkins the beginning of this year, 1887. The arm is 
not united. He still uses the sheath support and has good use of the 


Case 33a.— Mr. Crocker, Bradford Crossing, near Taunton. In this 
ca^e the Humerus had been un-united some time. The instrument 
is different to J. Hawkins in that it allowed the use of the elbow- 
joint. January, 1888, Mr. Crocker writes : - " The instrument answei-s' 
well, and is of more real help than I could have anticipated " 





Amputation above the 

Case 34. 

CooAN Hall, neab. Caudiff, February, 1868. 

The hand I received of you I am perfectly satisfied with. I can cut my food quite 
comfortably, ride on horseback, diive, and do a great number of things with it. And 
above all things it hides the de6ciency ; it also fits remarkably well and wears very 
easy. It is so very useful, and so beautifully made, that language is far too light to 
express its value. I have written this testimonial with my Artificial Hand. 

Yours truly, 

To Mr. Gillingham. J- SURRIDGE. 

Nob long since Mr. Surridge sent the arm and hand to be repaired 
after wearing it for 18 years, with the following remark in hLs letter : — 
" You must not think me ungrateful for not writing for so long. I 
should have only been too pleased, if my means had allowed, to send 
you a cheque for £100 as a compensation for the benefit I have 

Amputation below the Wrist. 

Case 35. 

Shoreditch, T.4.UNT0N, 14th Janury, 1876. 
Dear Sir,— In connection with the arm and hand I have got from you I must 
express the highest gratification at the results I have experienced. I am enabled to 
use the knife and fork readily, to ride, to hold cards, to carry a heavy weight-aU with 
the utmost ease by means of the various appUances you have mvented. I have come 
a long distance— over seven thousand miles— from the Cape of Good Hope, and do not 
regret one single step of the way when I view the success with which I have attained 
the object for which I came— viz : the restoration, as far as possible, of the powers lost 
along with my hands. I must also speak in high terms of your extreme kindness 
during our short connection, and the zeal and goodwill with which you devoted 
yourself to get over the few slight hitches which unavoidably retard the complete 
fitting of the arm and hand. 

I am, dear Sir, yours sincerely, ^ 
Mr. J. GiUingham. CHAS. C. LYON HENRY. 

second letter: 

St. George's Street, Cape Town, 

9th April, 1887. 

Dear Sir,— You may be surprised at my not having written to you previously 
about the success of the arm you fitted on when I was in England some time ago, but 
I determined to give it a long and severe trial, so that I should have good grounds upon 
which to base any testimonial I might give. „ , • -n v„ 

I must now state that, after sixteen months' wear (it was first fitted on m December 
1875), I have found it to answer most satisfactorily in every respect ; it has improved 
my figure wonderfully, one shoulder having been much higher than the other througti 
the losa of the weight of the lower part of the arm. It is so natural in appearance 
that many persons have been upwards of a month acquainted with me belore anytfiing 
odd was remarked. The instruments supplied with the hand answer their several 
purposes so well— especially the knife and fork— that I can appear m the ball room or 
at pubUc meals without any attention being attracted to what one would suppose would 
seem any awkwardness on my part. , ■. • i j„j ^„™«.~ . 

Every piece has proved admirably fitted in every respect for "itended pu^ose 
with the hook I used to run all over the rigging on board ship ; with the ^and-vice 1 
can do all those Httle odds and ends that require to be done about a house ^lih great 
facility and similarly with the rest. 


I must conclude by expressing my deepest gratitude .and warmest thanks to you 
under God's blessing for having been able so far to remove that disability I was afraid 
I should labour under for life when I met with the accident nearly three years ago, 
and trust you may long continue in your present course— doing good to mankind and 
more especially those in affliction. 

I shall write you again in a mail or two, and for the present am 

Yours gratefully, 


J. Gilhngham, Esq., Surgical Mechanist, Chard, Somerset. 

Bn)i) (hfcicnt the Hand at the Wrisl. 

Case 36. 

. AsHFiELD, North Petherton, Jan. 1880. 

Dear Sir,— Just a line to tell you I am getting on with my hand first class. I can 
crochet with it and do many things. It is a great improvement to my appearance ; I 
can now go to church on Sundays and hold my books without covering my arm as 
before. My hand has been very much admired. I now thank you for the trouble you 
have taken and the attention shown me when at Chard. 

Yours truly, 

To Mr. GiUingham. FRENCH. 

Natural Deficiency. 

Case 37. 

T- „ ^ ^ . . , ^^AMBHAY Hill, Plymouth, Jan. 27th, 1831. 

Dear Sir, —I desire to inform you that the hand with which you supplied me 
answers every purpose to be desired in an artificial hand. I find it very useful in 
many things, but the natural appearance in public is a real relief. 

I am, yours respectfully, 



(Taking away the projecting end of the outside of the radius that 
the surface may be even). In September, 1880, Mr. F E Cross 
F.R.C.S., of (Clifton) Bristol Infirmary, late of King's College, Lon- 
don, came to consult me on various operations, especially that of 
Amputation through the Wrist Joint. It was an operation he had 
long advocated, but had met with opposition both from surgeons and 
mechanicians whom he had consulted ; and it was argued that it would 
place great di&culties in the way of a mechanist in fitting an artificial 
hand. The advantages Mr. Cross wished to secure to the patient are 
not only a useful lever, but the pronation and supination of the hand 
I here beg to say that I have treated similar cases, and see no difficulty 
in fitting a hand and arm to such a useful operation. There is one 
disadvan age-the arm at the wrist is not so symmetrical, but it is 
easily hidden by the dress or cuff, and is of no consideration compared to 
the advantages of pronating and supinating the hand. 

^, Amputation below the Elbotv. 

Case 38. 

Dui-p T , , "Wemkdon Hill, Bridgwater, May. 1880 

caLot be too Jhar3cL7 ' "™ ^Yourt ^ " '° ^ 

„. * \<>.honT^r to Mr. Coggins, Wembdon, Bridgwater. 

a.'m Tw'"'"''"!*'^' Woodberry has been supplied with a second 

Jum, the former being in use five years. 




This Engraving Represents the Mechanical Fingers invented by J. 


" The instrument is fixed in the wrist and 
is removed, as you see, instantly on touch- 
ing the spring. There are three rods 
corresponding to the thumb and the first 
and second fiigers ; the top one, over which 
the -work is drawn, is moveable in any direc- 
tion, and bound to the other two by a 
vulcanized rubber band : this band accord- 
ing to its tension keeps the work. On each 
rod is a piece of brass tube which revolves 
when the work is drawn. Over the two 
under tubes is slid a piece of vulcanized 
rubber pipe. The work is placed in the 
instrument precisely as it is in over the index 
finger, the vulcanized rubber holds the work 
just like the soft cushions of the fingers ; as 
the person stitches she can di'aw the work, 
the rollers revolve, and thus they can hem 
and stitch at any length. Ladies who have 
lost an arm at the shoulder, above or below 
elbow, may now by the use of this instru- 
ment follow their favourite employment, 
which through their loss.they may have long 
Deen deprived of."- — Enfflish Mechanic and 
Mirror of Scietice, June I7th, 1870. 

""We give an engraving of what we con- 
sider a useful and ingenious contrivance by 
which a lady who has had the misfortune to 
lose a hand may perform sewing." — Scien- 
tific American. 

Testimonial from the young woman these fingers were invented for . 

Case 39. 

Rayenstendal, "Westmoreland, April 12th, 1871. 
Dear Sir,— I have got quite attached to the arm; I should not like to be without 
it. It wears quite easily, and I find it very useful. 

M. rs UCjLjN 1 • 

Amputated a feiu inches from the Shoulder. 

Case 40. 

Stati Mills, Uplarn, Devon, May 3, 1873. 
Dear Sir,— The arm you made for me in 1872 answers all my expectation, and I 
can recommend every person that -has lost an arm to have one. I have learnt to dress 
the millstone very well with it ; both in the mill and garden I learn to do many things. 

Yours truly, 

To Mr. GiUingham. ^- ^'O^^- 



Artificial arm above elbow. 

Case 41. 

SuMMERLAND Place, Honiton, October 27tli, 1885. 

Dear Sir, — Leticid "Warren, the young woman to whom you supplied the hand and 
arm, wishes me to write, being interested in her case. The work which I have 
forwarded, she cut out and made. This will speak better than any words can do. She 
uses her machine and needle and is most painstaking and thankful with employment. 
She is indeed thankful for the skill you have displayed in enabling her again to partly 
earn her living. It is remarkable how she can do what she does. 

BeUeve me, yours sincerely, 


The patient referred to is a widow with one chUd, dressmaker by 
trade. She lost her arm above elbow, which to hel^was a great loss, as 
the hope of her livelihood was gone. She was helped by kind friends 
to the hand, arm, and set of appliances to meet her case. One morning 
a beautifully made little undergarment came for my acceptance. I prize 
it much, as it only shows what perseverence will do under such adverse 
circumstances. In some cases where there is no necessity to get a 
living, the hand and arm may' prove a failure, only being of service when 
called into practical use. 

Artificial hand and arm below elbow. 

Case 42. 

GuRNSEY, Forest, C.T., August 24th, 1883. 

Dear Sir, — I am thankful to say after what I believe to be a fair trial of my harness, 
that it works well. I have passed through the hay harvest, and just going through 
the com harvest, and must say that I have been much helped by the use of the 
mechanism. I am thankful to say my health is good. I have outdoor exercise in 
abundance. I shall remember with gratitude the kind attention which I received both 
from you and Mrs. G. during my short stay at Chard. 

Yours truly, 


Mr. M. is a grape grower, and with the appliances there was an 
arrangement for dressing and pruning vines. 

Artificial arm below elbow. 

Case 43. 

, Reading, February, 18S7. 

Dear Sir -It is with much pleasure that I have to inform you that the artificial 
arm and hand gives great satisfaction to myself, also to my friends. The superior 
workmanship, strength, lightness combined with the simpHcity of its mechanism is 
worthy of all the praise I can give. 

Yours faithfully, 


With the appliances was supplied a holder for using a cricket bat, 
in which game Mr. G. excelled. 




I have continued the following testimonials in my new book, they 
were received from gentlemen 20 years ago, who gave me' early 
encouragement in my new sphere. They have nearly all passed over to 
the great majority, but their kindly words are not the less valued— J. G. 

From Sir W. Fergusson, Bart., Surgeon Fxtraordinarg to IT.M. the Queen. 

16, George Street, Hanover Square, November 20th, 1866. 

I have seen several pieces of Mechanism intended to remedy the defects of the human 
body, by Mr. GiUingham, of Chard, which display great ingenuity. 


King's College Hospital, London. 

47, Queen Anne Street, November 20th, 1866. 
The Instruments shown to me by Mr. J. Gillingham seem very well adapted to their 
purpose, and to have been planned and made with great ingenuity. 


Assistant Surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

24, Mount Street, Grosvenor Square, November 23rd, 1866. 

I have seen and critically examined the artificial leg made by Mr. Gillingham, of 
Chard.^ In construction it is both simple and ingenious, and a mechanical work 
exceedingly creditable to its inventor. 

F. C. SKEY, F.R.S., 
Consulting Surgeon, to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, &c., &c. 

Mr. J. Gillingham, of Chard, has upon tn'O occasions shown me mechanical appliances 
for removing the difficulties that arise from amputation of legs and arms. They are 
extremely ingenious, and in my opinion, are better adapted for the purpose then others 
I have previously seen. 


Senior Surgeon to the "Westminster Hospital 

33, Old Burlington Street, London, 7th February, 1867. 

Mr. TAMPLIN presents his compliments to Mr. GiUingham, and has pleasure in 
Jtating that he considers his mechanical contrivance for a false leg admirably adapted 
for ita purpose, 

F.R.C.S. Royal Orthopffidic Hospital. 

. I tave examined several of Mr. Gillingham's Artificial arms and legs and can speak 
in high terms of their efficacy and simplicity. Not less adapted for their purpose, and 
even more simple in their construction, were his apparatus for certain diseases of the 
hip and spine. 

Surgeon to the Westminster Hospital, &c. ; Lecturer on Surgery. 



I have seen Mr. GilUngham's Artificial limbs, and they seem to me well contrived to 
answer the purpose contended. ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

* 6, Savile Eow, W., November 21st, 1856. 

16, George Street, Hanover Square, W., March 23rd, 1866. 
Dear Sir,—" Eefemng to your cases I rejoice to hear you are getting on apace ; you 
have great ingenuity, which certainly deserves more encouragement than is likely to be 

got at Chard. . , - „ 

Yours faithfully. 

To Mr. GiUingham, Chard. WM. FEEGUSSON. 

In February, 1880, I waited on Sholto Vere Hare, Esq., of Knole 
Park, Gloucestershire, to take a cast and mould a surgical splint for 
angular fractured thigh, see dotted lines B, engraving 16 After the 
work was executed, Mr. Hare said he had been recommended to me by 
Sir James Paget, who appi-eciated my skill in the treatment of my 
patients. " I should like to give you the extract from his letter to me, 
which I think you well deserve, and you can couple it with my name." 

1, Harewood Place, Hanover Square, London, ^Y., 6th February, 1880. 
"Mr. Gillingham, of Chard, a very ingenious man, could, I believe, make whatever 
is wished for in moulded Leathern Splits, &c., &c." 

To Sholto Vere Hare, Esq. J AS. PAGET. 

British Medical Association, Bath Meeting. — "There is one thing I M'ill say 
of Mr. Gillingham, we can believe in him and what he does is thoroughlv practical.' 


Aberenio House, Talgarth, E.S.O., Breconshire, April 23rd, 1874. 

Sir, — The artificial legs manufactured by you for my patient, Mr. W. Jones, of 
Brecon, whose both legs I amputated immediately below the knee-joint, in May, are 
alike admirable in design and execution . They far exceed my expectation, and enable 
the lad to walk in comfort without a stick. 

It further affords me much pleasure in bearing testimony to the great ingenuity dis- 
played by you in the foot supplied to Mr. Edward Howells, of Trevend College, near 
Talgarth, on whom I performed Symes' operation some years back. He walks any ^ 
reasonable distance with ease and only the slighest Hmp. 

Yours truly, 







Tlie above is the fii'st moulded splint and the first 
spine support made by me. Engraved from photogi-aph. 
These simple contrivances are my first introductions to 
Surgical Mechanism, and the beginning of all that has 
followed in this work. — J.G. — See Introduction. 








OF THE Leg and Ankle, &c. 


"The accompanying drawing shows an ingenious and 
novel application for the relief of hip-joint disease, the_ in- 
vention of Mr. Gillingham, of Chard, whose ingenious 
artificial legs were noticed in " The Lancet " of November, 
7th 1868. The object of the apparatus is to enable the 
patient to walk without throwing any weight upon the 
aflfected joint, and this is accomplished by an accurately-fitted 
bucket, taking its bearing from the tuberosity of the 
ischium. From the bucket two steel supports pass to the 
heel of the boot (with a high heel if necessary), and thus 
when the patient stands, the weight of the body rests upon 
the instrument and not on the joint, though the movements 
of the latter are not interfered with. The supports are 
jointed at the knee. The instrument is said to be_ easily 
adapted, and to give the patient no inconvenience in any 
position he may assume." 

We have been at the pains, before admitting the fore- 
going into the columns of " The Lancet," to ascertain from 
three medical men that the apparatus has proved very 
efficient in their hands "—^Ae Lancet, September 4th, 1869. 

Sufferers with dislocated hips ; diseased hip joints ; fractured neck of 
thigh-bone ; non-union of thigh ; withered legs ", paralysed legs ; con- 

Having previously brought out several useful inventions which have 
been pirated by others, I think it right to show the origin of my hip 
instrument, that there may be no mistake as to its being my own inven- 

A patient (S. Bear) with fractured leg, under the treatment of 
N, W. Spicer, Esq , of Chard. In this case there was no union of the 
bone. After lying up some time, he was sent to the Devon and Exeter 
Hospital, laid up there some months, afterwards sent out as incurable. 
Mr. Spicer sent the patient to me, I fitted a leg-sheath to envelope the 



leg and set the bone, the bearing being taken round under the knee or 
head of the tibia. To this sheath was attached two extending lateral 
steel supports, passing down through the heel of the boot, and taking 
the weight of the body olf the fracture. Thus the patient was enabled 
to walk and work. In twelve months, leg restored, and the instrument 
laid aside (See Holmes' Surgery, Vol. II, p. 893). 

Shortly after this, a professional gentleman taking a tour in the 
West, waited on me and inquired if I had done very much in the 
treatment of hip cases, and stated that the great want was an 
appliance that had not yet been produced. An instrument was needed 
to raise the patient from bed, keep up extension, and at the same 
time enable the patient to walk, as the extending splints, weights, 
pulleys, (kc, confined the patient to the bed, and tended materially to 
weaken the general health. I saw what was wanted, and how to 
construct it ; took my pencil and sketched the principle of the instru- 
ment required at once. 

The Hip Instrument is an accurately fitting thigh sheath, so fitted as 
to take its bearing round the sitting, the point of fulcrum being the 
sitting bone The same kind of extending or sliding lateral supports 
that I applied to Bear's case to lift the weight off the fractured leg, I 
attached to the thigh sheath, which extended to the heel of the boot, 
allowing free action of the hip, ankle and knee (when necessary), thus 
keeping up any amount of extension and taking the entire weight ofl: 
the hip-joint In every case, after proper adjustment of the instrument 
— it mattered not how powerless the limb— the patient could stand and 
walk at once What I needed now was some case to prove my invention, 
which I will further explain and illustrate. 

Case 44. — The first patient presented to my notice was a lady, a 

patient of W. Parsons, of Godalming, Miss L , of Tiltham's House. 

In almost all affections of the hip-joint, the first symptoms are 
experienced by pains in the knee-joints and involuntary action of the 
limbs. In this case there was a two-fold difficulty ; a severe contraction 
of the knee caused by a spasmodic action of the muscles. The con- 
traction was so severe that an ordinary splint was smashed up like tinder. 
My Hip Instrument was fitted, and springs acting on eccentric at the 
knee, pulHng a strain of nearly 801b. to overcome the contraction. These 
were worn with comparative ease. A cork boot, to make up for short- 
ening. In six or seven weeks the contraction was got over and springs 
removed ; in as many more months the leg brought down, cork boot 
removed and an ordinaiy boot supplied. In less than two years the 
limb was restored and the instrument laid aside. 

GoDALMiNO, September 13th, 1869. 

Deah Sir,— I shall always be glad to speak of your Hip Instrument as a most suc- 
cessful appliance. Yours truly, 

To Mr Gillingham. PARSONS. 

Tiltham's House, Feb. 1st, 1869. 

Deae Sie,— I have much pleasure informing you that the support yoQ made for my 
daughter answers admirably ; she is the astonishment of all her friends to see \nth 
■what ease she walks and without the least fatigue. L. 

To Mr. Gillingham. 





Engraving 16 is supplied with a 
view to explain the different kind 
of fractures that come under treat- 
ment, and to which the instrument 
is applied. In cases of fracture of 
the thigh and diseases of the hip- 
joint. The limb is generally fixed 
in a splint (A) firmly securing the 
foot (with a cross piece to prevent 
the limb turning in bed), and kept 
extended by a perineal band at the 
hip, in this position the limb is 
fixed until the fracture is set and 
union secured. In - case of disease 
or softening of the bone, a sandal is 
placed on the foot to which is 
secured a weight acting over a 
pulley at the foot of bed to keep up 
the necessary extention, until the 
patient is sufficiently recovered to 
take to crutches. While on crutches 
an iron patten is often fixed to the 
boot of the sound leg to raise the 
patient and allow the affected limb 
to swing, until sufficiently recovered 
to bear weight or use some appli- 
ance. In cases of fracture or 
disease, where the limb is powerless, 
but convalescent, an instrument 
is fitted (engi'aving 15) and con- 
structed to take its bearing from 
the sitting bone in the line E 
through the heel of the boot. Thus 
by the extention and adjustment of 
the instrument from this bearing, 
the whole weight of the body may 
be taken off any kind of fracture 
from above the knee even to the 
fracture of the neck of thigh bone. 
Not only so, but in cases of disease 
and the softening of neck of thigh 
bone, the hip -instrument is equally" 
effectual in taking the weight off 
the affected part. 



The two legs represent two pillars supporting the upper structure, if 
YOU remove one pillar, or leg, and place a prop in the line E it becomes 
nn equivalent until the limb is repaired or restored and if never restored 
it is almost an equivalent. The figure 1 marks the fracture of the neck 
of thigh bone. This most frequently occurs with aged people. In age 
the thigh bone sinks at the neck from an obtuse angle (14) to a right 
angle (15), this accounts for some of the shortening in old age, and is 
more liable to fracture for want of toughness or animal matter in the 
bones. With a young person it is different, the bone may become 
wrenched or dislocated. 

The difficulty in these fracture cases is to keep up extension and set 
the bone, the latter being like a piece of chalk with no matter to bring 
about union. The patient is hopeless so far as union is concerned ; but 
the hip-instrument meets the case : prevents the fractured part from 
grating and the end of thigh-bone playing up and down in the muscles 
when walking. Examples of this fracture are given in several cases. 
(71 and 72). 

In cases of hip disease and affections of the joint, the neck of the 
thigh-bone (7) sometimes softens and sinks to a right-angle (15) and 
beyond it. This weakness may continue and may be assisted by the 
hip-instrument, and the deficiency made up by cork-boot. 

In some cases the capsular ligament is injured — the ligament that 
connects the head of thigh-bone to the socket and through which 
nutrition is supplied to the bone ; the limb becomes weak and stunted 
in growth. 

In cases of infantile paralysis the hip is loose and wiU often slip out 
of the socket as in some cases particulai-ised. Not unfrequently the 
head of the thigh-hone is forced from the socket in rheumatic fever by 
the enlargement and filling-in of the socket. In all these cases the 
hip instrument is effectual in rendering aid. 

In some cases of disease the head of thigh-bone becomes honey- 
combed and cemented to the socket or pelvis — this is what is called 
anchylosis. In these cases Avalking is more difficult, as an axis is partly 
made of the spine. In some cases wounds continually appear, and will 
until the disease has spent itself. I have patients where the wounds 
have been continually open for 10 and 15 years or more. They have 
been wearing instruments the whole of the time, and to all appearance 
enjoy good health, the affliction being local and not touching any vital 
part. Some of these cases are constitutional, some brought on by 

Dislocation of the hip. This may be foi'ward, backward, or other- 
wise, and indicated by the direction in which the foot turns. In such 
cases the patient has to be put down and the limb extended by pulleys. 
It takes a good jerk to put it out and there must be a strain to get it 
in. Where the case is hopeless the hip-instrument meets the case, and 
the deficiency is made up by high boot. 


Now refer to the engraving. Fractures 3, 5 and 6 illustrate non- 
union of the thigh-bone and the means employed to bring about union. 
Somet^nes the ends of the bone will callous -^/--^^^^ ^^^^^ 
nr a niece of fibre may get between and prevent it. in sucli cases 
t'e pEtls put undL'chloroform, the two ends of the b-e -bbed 
to b?eak the cTllous, set up irritation and -^^^f J^^J, 
fails the ends of the bone may be cut ofF and re-set It this taUs tne 
ends of bone cut off (as at 3) and wired together with silver wire, or the 
tSSh bone plugged with ivory (as at 6). With all these contrivances 
the'^-e may be nrunion, and if there is no union matter the surgeon 
cannot put it there. Then the patient has to be handed over to me for 
LchanLl aid. The sheath sets the facture and the instrument relieves 
the limb sustaining the weight. 

Fracture 2 is an oblique, difficult to set on account of the contracting 
muscles ; and the necessary amount of extension to be kept up by splint 
A An; loosening of the band at the hip will let the tbigh out m the 
direction of the lines B. Fracture 5.— This was the case Avith S. V. H. 

Fracture 4 is the most simple fracture to set, as it is effected 
without shortening the limb. 

The most remarkable case of fracture that has come under my notice 
was that of Mr. Luffman, of Milborne Port— spontaneous fracture of 
the thic^h-bone in apparently strong and healthy subject. It was 
supposed there was some suppuration going on. Without warning the 
bone broke in two from the powerful contraction of the muscles, ihis 
necessitated the amputation of the leg, and in due course Mr. T. Bryant, 
of Guy's Hospital, sent the patient to me to be supplied with an 
artificial leg. 

Ti'racture 8 illustrates non-union of the leg. The fracture is set by 
an^accurately-fitting sheath and extension kept up under the head of 
tibia (in the line F) by means of two extending lateral supports— as m 
the case of S. Bear, page 42. The fractures 9 and 10 are supported by 
similar means when weak. Not unfrequently diseased bone is taken 
from the leg, and where the periosteum is left the instrument is of 
service till new bone has formed. 11 —Fracture of the patella. Treat- 
ment illustrated on another page. (See knee-cap). 12.— The lunar 
cartilages which form wedges under the front of knee. Sometimes 
these will scale off, the senovial fluid gets under, and they become 
floating cartilages. Treated of elsewhere. (See keep-cap). 

Having explained the various fractures, will now pass on to the 
mechanical cases and the results of treatment. 

Case 45. — The second patient treated by the Hip Instrument was 

I^isg p late of Devonshire Buildings, Weymouth, patient of the 

late W. J. Smith, Esq., Weymouth. Miss P had been laid up some 

seven years, lying for the last four years on a couch. On the adjusting 
of the in.strument, she could stand, took my arm, and instantly walked 



across the bedroom. Six weeks after I visited her and said, " You may 
now try the stairs." She walked up and down stairs. "We then took a 
walk and for the first time for many years, this lady, with my arm, 
walked from neai'ly one end of the pier to the other. 

These facts became known to the Lancet. The medical gentlemen 
attending the case were communicated with by one of their medical staflf 
and an article appeared on it in the Lancet, September 4th, 1869. 

Extract from Mr. W. J. Smith's Letter. 

Weymouth, August 12, 1869. 

Dear Sir — . . . The instrument is qtdte a success in the case of my patient. 

Yours, &c., W. J. SMITH. 

To Mr. GiUingham. 

Symondsbury, August 25th, 1869. 

Sir,— It gives me great pleasure to state that the "Hip Instrument is a most 
decided success, and I think most fully realizes all your expectations, as it is even of 
more assistance to me than I anticipated. I am, Sir, obediently yours, 

/ have left the earlier cases in this edition as the earlier proofs of the success attending 
the first application of the Instrument and the success that has coyitinued through a long 
line of sttfferers is shoivn by examples of more recent date. 

Case 46 —A lady from Melbourne, Australia, came over for treatment 
under W. Lyon, Esq., George Street, Glasgow. In this case the hip 
had been forced from the socket, after rheumatic fever, and the socket 
filled in. A Hip Instrument, after my design, copied from the Lancet, 
was fitted to this lady by a Glasgow Mechanist, but it failed. This I 
knew nothing of until I had put my patient right. Here, let me say, 
lies the great secret of success— in a perfect manipulation and adjust- 
ment. Instruments and splendid mechanism, however well executed and 
costly, are only waste materials if they do not meet the needs of the 
case. As soon as I had fitted my own invention, which was a failure in 
the hands of another, my patient could walk with comparative ease and 
the sinking motion caused by the trocanter of the hip playing up and 
down in the muscles ceased. 

Case 47.— Miss A., Bomsey, patient of H. Sainsbury, Esq., of Romsey. 
I saw the patient in bed, where she had been for .some months. There 
was a great deal of spasmodic and involuntary action of the limb, so 
much that the limb leaped about and seemed uncontrollable. She could 
not stand except on one leg, and that with assistance. This young lady 
was brought from her bed to my house ; on adjusting the instrument, 
she could walk the room, and in less than a quarter- of-an-hour walked 
up and down stairs. Before I proceed further, I must be understood. 


An instrument-an external mechanical appliance-does not cure an 
fSct^on Tt helps to cure indirectly and by medical aid, and also assists 
tvdSng whL tt limb is rendered powerless by accident or otherwise. 

Case 48 -Miss P (the address I withhold from the description of 

the cSe) This young lady had been laid up for many years, but could 
walk on crutches^ Some three or four wounds were x-unning from the 
hip-io^^t when I fitted the instrument. On the adjustment of the 
inftniment, the crutches were laid aside, my arm was taken and my 
patient walked a quarter-of-a-mile or more. 

Here let me again say (as I wish to throw out all important sugges- 
tions as I go on for the encouragement of others) the suiyeon has some 
Imes to efercise his judgment what course to take with his patien , 
whether he shaU lie in bed for years (for hip cases are long cases), 
until prostrated by weakness from confinement, or whether when the 
ioint has become less inflamed, he shall raise him up to walk though 
the wounds may be running and assist him to take exercise and fresh 
air by means of an instrument. 

Case 49.— Mrs. Lano, Dressmaker, Ware- 
ham. In this case the hip was out of the 
socket, and swung useless like a pendu- 
lum—so useless that the limb had been 
carried in a sling round her neck for 20 years, 
and she had walked during that time by the 
aid of a crutch. (The case is represented in 
wood-cut No. 17 engraved from photograph). 
Shortly after the instrument was adjusted, she 
took my arm and walked to her hotel, and the 
next morning walked back to my house to 
breakfast. In this instrument there is no 
joint at the knee, the knee being a little con- 
tracted the weight falling behind the natural 
knee -centre. 

■Wareham, August 10th, 1875. 
Dear Sir,— I am truly thankful for the instrument 
you made me, I have worn it every day ever since I 
saw you. I can walk with perfect ease, and cannot tell 
you how thankful I am to have it. 

Yours truly. 

To Mr. Gillingham. R- LANO. 

Some years after I supplied Mrs. Lano with 
a second instrument— April, 1887. They 
have now been in constant use for fourteen 
or fifteen years, but the limb without the 
instrument is as powerless as on the first day 
fitted. This instrument assists, but cannot - 




Case 50. — Mr. Ball, aged 20, came over from California ; he had 
not walked from birth except on one leg and crutch. As soon as the 
instrument was adjusted, the crutch was laid down and he could walk 
at once without assistance. I will now mention a little incident ; 
I was living at the house of my original business, which had been 
established some forty years since by my parents. Mr. Ball wished to 
see Mr. Gillingham. I was at my work and had been smiting at the 
forge, being in the habit of turning my hand to anything that had to 
be done. I came in my working dress. " I wish to see Mr. Gilling- 
ham 1" " 1 am the person in request." I was looked at with astonish- 
ment and on looking around he said " I must have come to the wrong 
place." " Oh ! no, sir, it is quite right. If you call on a practical man 
in his working hours, you cannot expect to see him in his frock coat." 
On examining his son's case, I found hip from the socket, limb withered, 
knee contracted, and six-inch shortening. On Master Ball's subse- 
quently walking oflf without his crutch, he said, " I should never have 
believed it possible when I saw you." Why was this? Unless now-a- 
day a man puts on appearance and stuns the people with a good stift 
price, they fancy there is no reality in the thing. 

As an example, I had in February, 1880, three patients with afiected 
and dislocated hips, they had all been under the treatment of the same 
bone-setter (who like others have their successes and failures) ; nearly 
two years had rolled away in each case and they were as far from walk- 
ing without crutches as ever. One had been on crutches 1 5 years and 
charged by the bone-setter 100 guineas, the second on crutches 13 years 
charged 10 guineas, the third on crutches about two years and charged 
10 guineas. Now I, by mechanism, enabled all three patients to walk 
without crutches in ten minutes. They were all here at Chard together. 


A case I now narrate is an illustration of No. 50, though I did not 
treat it. This patient had broken off the neck of the thigh-bone. She 
availed herself of the first of surgical skill and opinion in London, and 
took a journey afterwards to Scotland to see the late Professor Simpson. 
Sir James Paget, with others, were all unanimous in their opinion that 
she would never walk again. The lady came to me. I visited her and 
examined her case with a professional gentleman. I told her I could 
enable her to lay down her crutches at once and not need them again. 
On my leaving she said to the doctor, " I cannot understand it ; if the 
first of medical skill in the world cannot make me walk, how can a 
country bootmaker do it." , 
■ In reply to the question put to the doctor— such cases are beyond tne 
reach of the best surgical skill (or even of bone setters) and are rather 
for skilful mechanical treatment. A skilful surgeon is proficient in his 
own branch of study, but he does not assume to be equally skiltul in 
mechanical science if he has not made it a matter of study and practice. 
For example, when I fetched the youth from Lincoln, without legs, 1 



theyouth walk It Callend'er, of St. Bartholomew's 

S^nital " I shalT nvlt; you to London." In a few weeks the youth 
w^stllng :1s! ^in le streets of London, and mtroduced at the 
Clinical Society by the above-named gentleman. 

The following case is another example where the skilled surgeon 
leaves the mechanical treatment of his patient to the mechanist. 

Case 51.— W. S , Esq., Engineer, late 

of Halstead, and at the time of his accident, 

consulting engineer, to the City of Pans. 

Mr. S. was smashed up in the Great Eastern 

Railway accident. His injuries were of such 

a nature that his life was despaired of for 

months, and' had not the first of medical 

skill been brought to bear on his case he 

could not have survived. Mr. S. was under 

the care of the late Sir W. Fergusson, B. 

Holt, Esq , and others. Sir W. Fergusson— 

who was always exceedingly gentlemanly and 

kind to me (also many other leading gentle- 
men in the town)— sent Mr. S. to me when 

he had sufficiently recovered the shock, but 

gave me not a gleam of hope of being of 

much practical good, yet I might assist. In 

addition to various compound fractures, this 

patient received injuries in the dorsal and 

lumbar regions of the spine, which resulted 

in total paralysis of the left leg. On my 
first examining him, I told him that I would 
enable him to lay dovfn his crutches in ten 
minutes. Now in this case there was not only 
a hip-instrument required, but a spine support 
connected with it. In less than five minutes 
after the mechanism was fitted Mr, S. walked 
about my workshop without assistance. To 
see him in the street you would not know there was anything the matter 
with him. He enjoys life tolerably well, can resume his sports — fishing 
and the like exercise — and take a tour on the continent in perfect confi- 
dence, yet out of his mechanism he is powerless. Sir W. Fergusson, among 
others, congratulated me on my success as being a most remarkable 
mechanical triumph over seeming impossibilities. The case is repre- 
sented in engraving from photograph (No 18). In this instrument will 
be observed a lock, to lock the knee standing, and a spring acting on an 
eccentric to flex the foot. Every case requires some modification, 
though the principle of extension is the same in all cases. 


SpiTTLEHAuon, West Linton, 4th October, 1873. 
Dear Sir, — It gives me great satisfaction to learn that you have been so successful 
with Mr. S. case. I shall lake great interest in looking at your good work on my 

Yours faithfully. 

To Mr. GilUngham. \V. FERGUSSON. 

Shortly after the mechanism was fitted, Mr. S. was met at Naples by 
a lady and gentleman of Chard, and they ascended Mount Vesuvius 
together. This mechanism has now been in constant use for fourteen 

Case 52. — E. J. Smith, Esq. (Old Auchendrane, New Kilpatric, 
Glasgow). Mr. Smith had used a crutch with one leg for 24 years. In 
this case the hip was from the socket. Leg undeveloped, knee con- 
tracted, and 7-inch shortening caused by accident some 25 years ago. 
Immediately on the necessary manipulation of the instrument, the 
crutch was laid down, and Mr. Smith enabled to walk. Mrs. Smith, 
who accompanied her husband, had never until now known him off his 

In 1871 Mr. S. paid another visit, and had an outfit of three sets of 
instruments and boots. (Here let me suggest, that when the patient 
can afford it, it is always wise to have a second instrument, to provide 
against accident or repair.) — J.G. 

March 2nd, 1875. 

Dear Sir, — I am quite an adept at my instrument now, and can walk a couple of 
miles at a stretch without much fatigue. In fact, I consider myself quite a credit to 
your most ingenious mechanical and sui'gical skill. 

Faithfully yours. 

To Mr. GilHnghara. E. J. SMITH. 

Case 53.— Mr. Stear, Holloway Street, Exeter. Left leg paralysed 
and partly dislocated at the hip, right leg slightly affected, on crutches 
7 years. His family doctor considered it a piece of folly to have anjrthmg 
done— his case was impossible. On the fitting of the instruments, Mr. 
Stear laid aside his crutches, took his son's arm, and walked from the 
bouse into the yard. 

14, HoLLo-ffAY Street, Exeter, 21st. Oct., 1876. 

Dear Sir,~It affords me much pleasure to testify to the great benefit I have obtained 
by the use of the excellent appliance you supplied me with last year. In the year 
1868 I had a very serious illness, caused by inhaling poisonous air from defective 
drainage, and which resulted in the loss of the use of my legs, but by the use of hydro- 
pathy and galvanism I regained power to use crutches, which enabled me to go short 
distances. When the weight of my body \ais on my crutches I could swing my legs 
forward. Last year you supplied me with the appliance to be worn to both legs which 
enabled me to stand erect and walk slowly by the aid of two walking sticks ; J am now 
able to leave off the appHance from my right leg, having gained power in it by its use, 
and am hoping by perseverance and God's blessing on the means used, yet to be able 
to walk without the help to my left. Should any one be sufTciing from the loss ot 
power, I strongly advise them to consult you on their case as you honestly tell them it 
you think you can do them good or not, free of cost. My case was a very severe one, 
&nd when I was first seen after putting on the appliance, my friends could scarce 
believe it was me, the change in my appearance was so great. 

I am denr Sir, yours truly, 

ToMr.Gillingham. E.J. STEAR. 

CsE 5 -Mr Ironmonger Jan., Axminster Railway Station used a 
crut h U years Hip pax-tly dislocated, limb undeveloped and partly 
no veriest on he fitting^of the instrument, the crutches were laid asxde 
at once ^^d he could Ilk a tolerably good distance without assistance 

InTsST Mr. Ironmonger, now of Queen Street Station, Exeter, was 
fitted with the second instrument, after using the first 10 years or more. 

Case 55.-Miss Alford, dressmaker, Alphington Street, Exetel^ 
Without exception this was the worst and most complicated case I had 
ever met with. Miss Alford had used crutches for 29 years In this 
cLe one hip was from the socket, knee contracted, undeveloped, and 
shortened, the other leg, arch of foot broken in. On adjusting the 
instruments, she could walk at once without the crutches. 

Case 56.-A lady, aged 20, of London, moving in one of the higher 
circles of life, had not walked from childhood except with the aid of 
crutches. This was far worse than case 55. Here I was brought to a 
stand, and could promise no help. In this case the right hip was 
dislocated, limb undeveloped, knee contracted, and 7-mch shortening, 
the left leg was touched with paralysis. Means of locomotion swing- 
ing herself on crutches, and catching on the point of great toe i 
stated, fairly, my opinion and said I would try what I could do, if t^ey 
liked, but on these conditions-if I failed, there should be no reflection 
on me, and I should be paid just as if I had succeeded, my time and my 
talent being my capital. I was thanked for my honesty, and the young 
lady came down when I was ready for her. In five minutes the 
crutches were laid down, and she walked round the table without them 
Now this lady had been treated by the fii-st mechanists on the continent 
without any satisfactory results, and by the first of professional 

Extract from Letters. 
" To Mr Gillingliam,— I am getting on very well with my support, and can waUc 
about the house easUy and for a short distance out of doors. I caai wear it almost ail 
day without feeling tii-ed, and eyerybody is much pleased with it. 

Yours truly, Ji. w. 

Case 57.— Mr. Langdon, managing clerk to Mr. Culverwell, corn 
factor, of Taunton. This case led to case No. 56 as follows :— Mr. 
Langdon had been six years on crutches, and catching himself on the 
points of his toes. On the application of the instruments, as in the 
other case, the props were laid aside. Mr Langdon returned to 
Kingstone to spend his Sundays, and upon being seen to walk into 
Church on the Sunday after his visit to me without his crutches, to the 
astonishment of those who knew him, was addressed after the service by 
a lady inquiring into the wonderful change. This lady was the aunt of 
case 56, who at once called the attention of her niece to me, which led 
to the results as narrated before. Mr. Langdon still uses his instru- 
ments and has done so for 12 years. 


Case 58. — Mr. Brown, of Horton, Yorkshire, laid up, and used a 
crutch 14 years. The crutch was laid aside, and walking witliout the 
prop was commenced immediately on the adjusting of the in.sti'ument. 

Case 59.— A. Darke, Esq., manager of the West of England Bank at 
Exmouth. Fourteen years on crutches, caused by some lesion of the 
hip-joint ; there was three-inch shortening, with partial power to walk : 
on the application of the instrument the crutches were soon laid aside. 

Exmouth, April 2vA, 1882, 
Dear Sir,— You will be pleased to know that the instrument is answering very well, 
and has been very little trouble to me at all, and is now becoming quite comfortable. 

Yours truly, 

A. J. i)AEKE. 

Not long since Mr. Darke sent me a similar case. The same success 
in the treatment followed. 

Case 60.— Miss Beaver, late of Teignmouth. This young lady had 
been laid up some years with an aflfection of the hip-joint. On fitting 
the instrument she could walk across her bedroom and though there is 
some considerable shortening, she can walk in her instrument a distance 
of five miles. Patient of J. A. Magrath, Esq., of Teignmouth, who 
sent for me to treat the case under his care. 

This patient has been supplied with three sets of instruments, over a 
period of 14 years, to keep the necessary pace with growth and still 
continue the support. 

Case 61.— Mr. F. E. Abbott, Charlton, Horethorne. Could not 
walk from birth, infantUe paralysis of right leg and loss of right arm 
by amputation. Enabled to walk without crutches immediately alter 
the instrument was adjusted. 

Waterloo Ckescbnt, Chablton Horethorne, September 1st, 1880. 
Dear Mr. Gillingham,— I enclose my photo for your acceptance, and beg to say mat 
1 have used my instruments every day since the first with success. 

^ Yours gratefully, 

To Mr. Gillingham. ^^^^^T. 
Mr. A. has now used his appliances, with success, for eight or nine 

Case 62.— J. Nobbs, son of W. Nobbs, evangelist, Gloucester. Ten 
years on cmtches from weak hip and undeveloped leg. He could walk 
a good distance without crutch on fitting the instrument. 

6 GooDYER Street, Gloi cestbr. 
Dear Sir,-My boy is deHghted ; he hai-dly knows what to do wi^th his hands having 
had them fi'Ued i with the crutches so long ; yesterday he had on 
•even hours, and walked a good deal. The instrument docs not hxu-t him scarcely any 
thing. I can see he will walk faster when used to it. yours truly 


Mr. N. has been supplied with the second instrument after using them 
many years. 



Case 63 —Miss Butcher, on crutches from a child, thrown by the 
nurse and the hip-joint injured. The crutches were laid aside on the 
fittine; of the instrument. 

6, West Villas, Islington, London. 
Deal- Sir,— I must thank you verj' heartily for making me walk as I do, I cannot do 
■without my stick yet, but I suppose I shall in time. 

I am, yours very truly, 



Cask 64.— C. 
Lock, Crawford, 
Fracture of the 
middle of the 
thigh. Laid up 
twelvemonths and 
no union ] he was 
removed to Taun- 
ton Hospital. Mr. 
Alford, jun , laid 
aside the muscles 
of the thigh, cut 
off the ends of 
bone and set the 
thigh again. Lock 
lay again another 
twelve months and 
no union. The 
limb was useless, 
with false joint in 
the middle of the thigh ; the muscles wasted and 
flabby and the leg dangled as if upon a string. 
He was sent to me by Mr. Alford. On the 
fitting of the instrument he laid down his crutches 
in the presence of the medical gentlemen then at 
the hospital, and walked the ward without 
assistance. For nearly six years this man had 
been getting his hving by working in a quarry 
and at draining work and had worn out several 
boots. He has since been fitted with a second 20 
instrument given to him by the Wiveliscombe Board of Guardians. 
Lock's case is represented in engravings 18 and 19, taken from photo- 
graph. In this an accurately fitting sheath is made to fit the thigh 
and fix the bone and the instrument, so adapted that it can be removed 
from the sheath aud that it may be worn in bed. A cork boot makes up 
the deficiency of the cut-off bone. In January, 1873, Lock had his first 
instrument ; in May, 1878, he had his second instrument ; in August, 
1882, he came to me for another cork boot. I found the thigh un-united 
and the limb as useless, without the instrument, as the first day it was 



fitted. In 1885, Lock consulted me about the third instrument, after 
1 3 years service in his mechanism. 

Case 65.— Beviss, Perry Street, Chard. Thigh fractured at the 
higher third. The patient was under the treatment of two medical men 
but no union could be eflected. Beviss was then sent to St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London, and placed under the treatment of a skilful surgeon, 
who put the patient under chloroform and tried to bring about union 
by rubbing the ends of the fractured bone together, but to no purpose. 
Prior to Beavis going to London I made him a temporary sheath to fix 
the thigh. I then said you will have to come back to me again. The 
London treatment failed and a suggestion was made to take off the leg, 
as he would not walk again without amputation. No, said Beavis, I 
will go back to Chard— to Mr. Gillingham — for an instrument that will 
enable me to walk. They questioned his statement, and said they knew 
of no instrument that would enable a patient so situated to walk. If 
it succeeded they would like to see it, and would be prepared to pay his 
expenses to London. Here is St. Bartholomew's Hospital with all its skill 
and modern appliances, surrounded by surgical mechanists, and yet ignor- 
ant of the most simple appliance — GiUingham's Hip-Instrument. An in- 
strument was fitted to Beavis's case and he has now followed farm work 
several years. It was only a few months ago he sent the thigh-socket 
to be repaired (and had to lay up during the time) though the instru- 
ment had been in use five years. It just illustrates the helplessness of 
the patient without it. 

Dairy House, Perky Street, Chard, Feb. ISth, 1888. 

Dear Sir, — The appliance you supplied me witli has assisted me these last four and 
half years to get about and do my usual work on the farm. I feel pleased to be able 
to send this statement for the encouragement of any unfortunate like myself. 

I am, dear sir, yours respectfully, 


Case 66. — Mr. Herod. Lying at the time of treatment in the 
Taunton and Somerset Hospital. Fracture just above the knee. The 
patient had been lying in the hospital some time with no hope of 
union. He was very stout and the limb about the largest I ever treated. 
The patient was handed over to me. Shortly after the instrument was 
adjusted could walk without his crutches, even to going up and 
down stairs. On inquiry, I learnt from G. W. Rigden, Esq., the House 
Surgeon, that Herod got on well, and was enabled to walk away from 
the hospital. 

Not knowing Herod's address, I wrote the lady in whose employ he 
■Was at the time of his accident. The following is a reply : — 

CoTHAT Barton, Kittisham, near "Wellington, October 7th, 1887. 
— I am in receipt of your letter. Should have replied before, but had not heard 
^ything of Herod for some time. Ho called to see me last week ; he had then walked 
from Brampton, a distance of about eight miles. He told me the instrument answered 
■"^ell. I asked him if he felt any difference between his legs after walking that distance, 
Mid he said " None at all." It must be a great boon to him. 

I remain, yours truly, 

S. J. CAPE. 


This cjvse I did not treat, but give it to set forth its treatment. The 
young man was from Bristol. Thigh fractured in the middle ; no 
union- passed under several courses of treatment; the last resource 
was to lay aside the muscles of the thigh and wire the ends of the bone 
together with large sHver wire, sample of which he produced, (bee 
engraving 16, fracture 3). This was ineffectual. After this he was 
sent to London, to a surgical mechanist, for an instrument. The 
instrument was well made, but the case was not studied. They had 
followed the old plan of a band round the thigh and calf, a lock at the 
knee, and a padded belt round the waist, no adaptation. The thing 
was 'useless, and having paid six guineas for it the poor fellow 
had no means of getting another. So what with an unsuitable in- 
strument and a grating-wired thigh, his case was hopless, and, so far as 
I know, he is still without the needed help. 


Case 67.— Miss J. M. H., Paignton, Devon. This lady had been 
laid up some -years from affection of the hip, brought on by strain or 
otherwise. She could walk with the assistance of crutches, but could 
not use the leg. There was no shortening, no apparent inflammation, 
the limb well developed. Still it would not resist weight without much 
pain and weakness ; this made it more difficult to treat. _ I attributed 
the pain of motion more to muscular tension and adhesion, from the 
fact that the limb had rested in one position so long. There was no 
doubt in my mind as to the patient laying aside the crutches and 
walking, provided she would put up with the pain and inconvenience 
of first wearing a hip-instrument. This she decided to do. The in- 
strument was fitted and the patient walked, but with much pain. 
With the exercise of each day the hip was bathed with warm flannels 
and kept warm for the night. The muscles soon relaxed their tension, 
and the patient walked with more ease. I mention this for the 
encouragement of sufferers using instruments for like cases. A limb 
that has not been used for five, ten, or twenty years, though it may be 
partly paralysed, must feel the reaction, shooting, twitching, &c., on the 
first using of an instrument. Thus to bathe with warm flannels and 
keep warm is to stimulate natural action in a useless limb, and the 
irksomeness will pass off in a short time. I have never known (during 
my practice of 20 years) a single case where a sufferer has been injured 
by wearing these instruments. 

In 1886 Miss K. paid me a second visit, with a view to having 
a second instrument, as she was thinking of going abroad. The ease 
and freedom with which she ascended the steps to my house (and 
walked without any assistance) was remarkable. She said " 1 am con- 
sidered, Mr. Gillingham, by my doctors to be a miracle." On removal 
of the instrument, to take the necessary measurements, I found no 
shortening, limb well developed, but not the least power to stand — the 
weakness was still there but no disease. The following is a letter sent 
several years after using the instrument : — 



Dear Sir, — I am much pleased and satisfied with the great benefit I have received 
from your hip-instrument, which I have worn several years. With it I can walk 
easily and lead an active life, after being confined to bed for years. I shall always feel 
thankful I was induced to apply to you, also for your kindness and attention. 

Tours sincerely, 

J. M. H. 

1 regret to say since this letter my patient is laid up again, being 
probably too active. 

Case 68. — Dislocation of the hip. Several inches shortening. On 
crutches eight or nine years ; the crutches laid aside on the first use of 
the instrument. 

2, Manston Terrace, Heavitree, Exetek. 

Dear Mr. Gillingham, — I am sorry I have not written to you_ before. I wished 
to give the instrument a good trial before I gave an opinion as to its success. I am 
glad to say it has answered in all respects. I can now walk into Exeter with comfort 
and little fatigue. I am, yours truly, 


Case 69.— Miss Clarke, Russel Street, Bath. On crutches eight 
years ; used every kind of treatment suggested with the hope of reaping 
benefit, and gave up hopeless. Miss C. was met by a lady (a patient of 
mine) who had been on crutches seven years and had worn an instru- 
ment many yeai'S. The same success followed treatment in this case. 

8, Russel Street, Bath. 

Dear Mr. Gillinoham,— I would not be without my instniment, it seems so nice 
to be without my crutches. I suffer no inconvenience from it whatever. I hardly 
know what to do with my hands at times. All my friends are pleased to see me walk- 
ing, and want to know all about it. 

Believe me to remain, yours thankfully, 


Shortly after this Miss Clarke met a lady who had been laid up on 
crutches many years and sent her to me. The following is an extract 
from her letter. Before giving it let me say what I have repeated 
more than once in this edition— that most of my patients are sent by 
those who have received benefit and through recommendation ; I do 
very little advertising. 

■2, Queen's Villas, Oldfield Park, Bath, 

November, 24th, 1885. 

Dear Sm,— You will be glad to hear that I have become used to my instrument 
I would not like to be without it. It is a great boon to me. I feel much stronger m 
myself and can attend to my house duties better than I have previously done for years. 
I thank you most heartily for the great benefit derived from the use of your Instrument. 

Yours truly, 





This accident more frequently occurs with aged persons. The head 
of the thigh bone enters the socket at an obtuse angle (see engraving 
16). With age the bones become brittle for want of animal matter, 
and are more like a piece of chalk ; not only so, the obtuse angle at the 
neck of the thigh-bone gradually sinks to a right angle, more like the 
top of the letter ~] ; this accounts for some of the shortening in old 
age, and the bone is more likely to break from fall or jerk. This 
accident rarely happens with young people. When the bone is broken 
off there is little hope of ever walking, on account of the muscular 
traction, which makes it almost impossible to set the bone ; and well 
may surgeons say — who have never heard of Gillingham's Hip Instru- 
ment — " You will never walk again." By skilful mechanical means 
this difficulty is overcome. The weight is taken off the fracture and 
conveyed to the sitting bone, and extension at the same time kept up, 
so that the patient can walk immediately on the proper adjustment of 
the instrument. Examples as under. 

Case 71. — Mrs. B broke off neck of thigh-bone from accident. 

Patient of J. Parsons, Esq., Bridgwater ; no hope was given. I was 
consulted, and at first declined on account of age. The lady of 
perseverance wished to make my skill a trial. The instrument was 
made and fitted, the crutches were laid aside, and with my arm she 
could walk the room and in a short time walk up and down stairs. 
After some months of use sufficient callous union was thrown out to 
enable her to do at times without the instrument, and I believe now it 
is dispensed with. (Since deceased.) 

Case 72. — Mrs. S , of High Ham, broke off the neck of thigh- 
bone from accident. The hip-instrument was fiitted, and the patient, 
with my arm and stick, could walk the room ; the crutch was dispensed 
with, and in less than an hour she could walk up and down stairs. 

I give these old standing cases as examples, having only treated four 
in twenty year.«. 

My trial test with nearly all my patients, whether with legs or instru- 
ments, is to get them, before I leave them, to walk up and down stairs, and 
they generally all accomplish this during the first hour; if patients 
make any progress at all it is manifest almost at once. With aged 
patients like the above, if they have not some energy (which is generally 
wanting in advanced life) it is useless the mechanist making the 
attempt, his skill being unavailing without the patient's effort. 




Case 73— Mr. Roberts, Shepherd's Bush, London. The left leg in 
this case swings loose and lifeless from the socket. (The right arch of 
the foot given way. ) The capsular ligament is so relaxed that the limb, 
from the hip, may be turned in any direction. Mr. R. had used 
crutches almost from infancy, but on adjusting the instrument they 
■were laid aside, and with the assistance of a stick he could walk a good 

This patient was met in London by a gentleman, presented with my 
prospectus, and directed to come to me. He consulted his doctor and 
referred him to my prospectus, but he scouted the idea with contempt 
and regarded it as folly to think of it. Being thus discouraged, he 
delayed the matter two years and then resolved to pay me a visit ; his 


friends wei-e against it, and his sister, wlio accompanied him to the 
station, said, "It is useless, for you will never walk off your crutches." 
On seeing him, I said, " Your case is a bad one, but not hopeless : I 
can enable you to walk without your crutches.'' The result I have 
given, and now give an extract from Mr. R.'s letter. I prefer to put 
my cases in this way, and give the incidents connected with them in 
order to encourage sufferers, and that they may. see the amount of 
prejudice that stands in the way of their being helped. 

Dear Mr. Gillikgham. — My silence has, doubtless, led you to believe that I am 
extremely negligent. I am glad to inform you that I improve with my instrument, 
and suffer no inconvenience from it. I can walk about London without fear or timidity. 
I have recommended several to you who have assured me they will come 

Believe me to be yours sincerely, 


Three years later I received the following letter from Mr. Roberts : — 

142, Pekcy Road, Shepherd's Bush, London. 

Dear Mr. Gillingham. — It is such a long (ime since I had my instrument, but 
the recollection of yoiirself and family and my pleasant stay at Chard is still fresh in 
my memory. "With regard to the instrument, you will be pleased to hear I am steadily 
improving, and now enabled to walk in ease long distances with comparative little 
fatigue. The instrument is in good condition after three and a half years' wear, and 
it has not required any alteration. It has kept firm all the time, and reminds mo of 
the poem of the book: "For men may come and men may go, but I go on for 
ever," &c. 

Believe me, yours sincerely, 


Case 74. — Mr. Waterman, Stoke-under-Ham. This young man was 
many years on crutches ; on the adjusting of the instrument they were 
laid aside at once. The same kind of case as Mr. E. The affliction in 
these cases being local, and arising from lesion of some kind, does not, 
as a rule, affect the general health ; patients thus situated enjoy life 
tolerably well apart from the inconvenience. 

About six years after the first instrument Mr. W. was supplied with 
a second. 

Case 75.— Infantile paralysis. Miss E. Martin, Exeter. On crutches 
from childhood ; the crutches were laid aside on the adjustment of the 
instrument. (Here I would add, taking mechanical cases as a whole, 
there are more cases of infantile paralysis than any other. Causes of 
same see forward). 



(Late of) 47, Victokia Road, Exeter. 

Deaii Sin, — My dpghter is much pleased with her instrument ; she gets on very 
well indeed. The neighbours are much astonished to see how well she gets about. 

Yours truly, 


Case 76. — Jane White, Worton, Devizes. On crutches thirty -seven 
years. A few hours after the mechanism was fitted she could take my 
arm and walk to her lodgings, a good distance. Miss White's sister 
was here at the same time for an artificial leg. One was fitted with 
mechanism the other with a leg, and they were enabled to walk away 
together. (See letter). 

WoRTON, Devizes, March, 1881. 

Dear Sir, — We can both get on quite well with our artificials, for which we thank 
you very much. Jane could walk to church and back, a good distance from here, with 
only the aid of an umbrella ; you will see from her photograph that she can stand erect 
by means of her instrument. As for me, with my leg I can walk quite fast, and my 
friends are surprised to see me walk so well. . . . 

I remain, yours most respectfully, 


Case 77. — Miss Mitchell, High Ham, Langport (late of Somerton). 
Miss Mitchell came to me when a girl ; she Lad been on crutches some 
seven years from injuries to the hip-joint. 

I fitted an instrument, with high cork boot, which enabled her to 
dispense with the crutches at once ; this she wore for some six years, 
when, from repeated adjustments to keep pace with growth and con- 
tinuous wear, she had outgrown her instrument, and in 1881 she came 
for a second. 

I found the limb developing, but as powerless without an instrument 
as on the first day I saw her. I state this that patients may see that 
instruments can assist life but they cannot at all times restore it. 

High Ham, Langport, June 23, 1882. 

pEAR Sir, — I can walk quite well with my new instrument, and a good distance 
■without anything for a support. 1 am very thankful to you, dear sir, to be able to 
walk as far as I can. I tind that I am still getting stronger in that leg. May 1 thank 
you for your kindness to me. 

Yours very truly, 


In many of these cases there is rarely any development in the limbs. 
In this case it was otherwise, though the patient cannot walk without 
the instrument. 


Case 78.-The above engraving illustrates a case of i^^^^f P^^'^f ^„ 
The patient, about 19 years of age, had not walked from infancy. As 


infant he was strong and Avell. A few months after beginning to wa^, 
he^L smitten suddenly with paralysis of both legs and one arrn^ 
In course of time the arm nearly recovered, but the legs m spite all 
medical and electrical treatment, remained lifeless as far as locomotion 
S concerned. The patient, apart from this affliction, is bright, intelli- 
gent and -enjoys tolerably fair health. This young man was recom- 
£ded to m by patient 10, who made reference to his own case by 
pnroura/ement On my visiting the patient I found both the 
I7s para lyT^^^^^^^^^ down and, when lifted, they swung as 

l esCpendages, Avith the exception of a little i-^irected motion m 
useless appe ^ , ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^.j^^^ they 

lid be twi tel round the neck. The knees were slightly contracted 
Td the h7ns or thighs, contracted forward from continuous sitting. 
THs added to the difficulty, inasmuch, as it is necessary to success in 
an^ appS-^e, that the weight of body and lines of gravity should faU 
through the limbs. 

and a belt round the waist, made after a plan no^^ f^^""^'^ 
of the case. But I find foreigners are ^ 'to£ countrTn^^^ 
I introduced 20 years ago and importing them to this country 


To refer again to the case. I - -arly a^^^^^^^^ 
patient with one lifeless paralysed limb-it ^'^^Jf '/^' tip 
powerless, or contracted- but with both legs ^ f^^^^. ^^^^^^^^^ 
that being the joint for locomotion, difficulties of no f^^'^^'^e 
i ^ mi,^ fi„<,t trial after the mechanism is fatted, is maae 
present themselves, ihe farst triai aiboi one artificial leo's soon 

in a go-car (Engraving 75) in which patients with ^^^^'^^^'^^ '^-^^^ „f 
begi? to wilk.' In this ^se, though ^^^^^^^^f ^^^^ ^^f, fixed to the 
the hand, the patient could not move. Crutches were 
cr to asdst th'e arms but he " 
and then only with the greatest difficulty, i seiaom , 
I had been attempting the apparently impossiHe 
that I should have to give up m failure, ^e now ^y 
crutches, one on each side, which proved of no be\p t° him^ engraving, 
thought suggested itself, a pair of two-legged ^^^^^^'c^^^;' a littf; 
so that he might shuffle the feet and prevent topplmg over. After a 

help and a fe'w trials the first signs of -o^^^J/J^but imperfect' 
from the crutches. Confidence was soon g^^'^f ^f^^' 'rdinary ones, 
walking began. The crutches were soon exchanged for oram y 


so that the patient could soon walk slowly round the garden now and 
then toppling over as might be expected, but ultimate y gettmg more 
confidence. The trial and exhaustion to a patient so situated can be bettei 
imagined than described. It is only plucky patients that could over- 
come it, but I have never known a case of injury from this exercise. 
The exhaustion and throbbing of the limbs generally wear off in a week 
or ten days. 

I aive this case to convey some idea of the difficulties the patient and 
mechanist have to overcome. How far he has succeeded the following 

letter says :— Montpeliek, Bristol, 5-11-87. 

Deak Mr. GiLLiNGH.^M,-! have delayed ^^'riting until I had something to tell yon 
I am glad to say my walking improves very much, in fact, I can .'alk aDou the 

house and garden quite easily and very much quicker than when I left Chard l ean 
walk upstairs with one crutch and the baluster, by '.placing my crutch on the stair 
catching hold of the baluster and raising both of my feet at the same t^^^^ J can 
come down the same way, but it makes the lookers-on rather nervous. I am beginning 
to walk more upright and can continue much longer, &c. 

Yours, very sincerely, 

E. F. Y. 

Case 37a.— Mr. J. Sampson, age 19, of Cessland, Spreyton, Bow, 
N Devon Infantile paralysis, not walked from infancy, limb power- 
less and short deficiency made up with cork boot. The crutches were 
laid down on the fitting of the instrument and the patient could walk 
fairly well in half an hour. About a week after, he writes as follows :— 

126, Fore Street, Hill, Exeter, Jan. 1888. 

The instrument answers well. I am beginning to feel it will he a success. I came 
here on Monday last and walked from the station, can-ying my crutch under my arm. 

Infantile paralysis mostly occurs when children are teething, or after 

A. child may be, to all appearance, healthy and put to b^ well. In 
the morning it may be found with one or both legs paralysed, or one 
side, in extreme cases both arms and legs. Sometimes it is slight, in one 
or both feet, drawing the toes in and turning the feet over on the ankles. 
In other cases the tendon at the back contracts and draws the heel up ; 
or the tendon may become loose, relaxed, and the whole foot weakly. 
The limbs continue cold, the muscles soft and undeveloped for want of 
nervous energy. The first symptoms should speedily secure medical aid 
— electricity and friction of the spine and limbs. If paralysis is not 
arrested, the limb often becomes useless and does not keep pace in growth 
with the sound limb. 

In severe cases, where both legs are afiected, the patient is placed in 
a sheet of mechanism, both spine and legs, not with the idea of restor- 
ing life, but to assist the patient and prevent deformity. A case in 
point is that of Mr. Tytherleigh, junr., Axminster, paralysis of one leg 
and partial paralysis of the other, the result of spinal injury. Such cases 
are not unfrequent and trifling things lead to serious results. A similar 



case to the above is that of a girl who received a blow from a ruler at 
school. Another where the chair was removed from behind a person 
in fun, so that the patient fell and injured the spine. Similar cases may 
be enumerated. Where both legs are afTected the mechanical arrange- 
ments, are similar to those in engraving 23 and only modified to 
meet the varied cases, but there is rarely any improvement in the 
limbs, though mechanism may have been vised for years. Patients so 
circumstanced generally enjoy fair health, the affliction being local 
and not affecting any vital part. 

Where one leg is paralysed, the instrument reaches to the sitting and 
round the waist ] a child can generally walk on its being fitted. 

Where the feet only are affected, the instrument reaches to the knees, 
but, where the feet are stubborn and will turn in and over on the 
ankles, they must be turned out and controlled from the waist. 

Sometimes, and not very unfrequently, infantile paralysis is the result 
of sitting on cold stones or damp ground, causing inflammation to the 
membrane of the spine. Sometimes it follows after fever or measles, 
when proper precaution, has not been taken, or by careless servants who 
let the children fall, or tip them out of a perambulator, &c. 

Example. Mr. E , the son of an eminent London physician. 

This youth, with his friends, were at a watering-place ; he was thinly 
clad in a holland suit (thin flannel or serge is preferable) ; he got warm 
and sat down on a cold stone or on the cold ground ; retired to bed 
well to all appearance. In the morning one leg was paralysed. The first 
medical skill was secured, but to no avail ; the boy had caught inflamma- 
tion to the spinal membrane. It is remarkable (take all the mechanical 
cases that come under treatment) that there are more cases of spine and 
infantile paralysis than any other. 

Is it to be marvelled at when you see children, with then- little short 
dresses and thin under-covering, sitting on the grass and cold stones ? 
Scores of times have I seen little children sitting on cold grass and 
damp ground with scarcely anything to cover their little^ sittings. It is 
no wonder they are so often poorly and the mothers don't know what is 
the matter with them. Here let me suggest a thin uniform flannel 
covering for the body, and little pants, not to open, but unbutton 
from the waistband. . , i . 

Referring to E. case again, I supplied him with an instrument that 
enabled him to walk ; five years after I supplied a second to keep pace 
with growth, but the limb was as lifeless as the first time I saw him. 


Case 79.— Miss Bale, Belbrook, Washford, Somerset. This is one of 
the most difficult hip cases I have met with, and I gave it up at one time 
as almost hopeless. Miss B. had been laid up five years ; when she 
attempted to walk without crutches it was by crouching and with 


intense pain, caused by the head of the thigli-bone constantly slipping 

out and in at the cup. _ r ny , 

At the time I treated the case the patient was inmate ot iaunton 
Hospital. The fivs^t adjustment of tlie in.strument was unsucces.sful ; 
there was no difficulty in putting the hip in the socket, but the diffi- 
culty was to keep it there while walking or .sitting. The patient then 
came to my house where 1 have all my appliances at hand. It then 
took me some seven hours to adjust the thigh socket, and though Miss 
B. was patient yet exhausted, she could walk round the room without 
crutches. Nevertheless, 1 gave up thoroughly beaten ; in certain 
posil-ions the hip would slip out. In this case it may be well to add 
chat my hip-instrument was litted with a lock knee joint; it deviated 
from my ordinary hip-in,strument in the construction and adjustment of 
the thigh socket. The socket was not only constructed to take the 
weic^ht off the hip-joint, but it took a diagonal line across and around 
the body, taking a "grip from the opposite side, so as to keep the hip in 

Some time after I was applied to by another patient with a similar 
case, but I declined to treat it, feeling that my last case was most 
difficult, and to my mind unsuccessful. I said I would write to Miss B. 
and get her to say how she had fai-ed. as I had looked upon 
it as a hopeless case. If 1 have a failure I admit it ; 1 have 
nothing to withhold, and no to mislead any patients. 

The following is an extract from Miss B.'s letter to my second 
patient: — 

Belhrook, Washford, Somehset. 

Dear Madam, — I have received a letter from Mr. Gillingham requesting me to write 
to you. My hip was quite out of joint; for tive years J wa.s not able to walk only 
quite double ; now I have the instrument I can walk quite well, perfectly upright, and 
a distance of tliree miles. I should be able to do more if I was stronger in health. I 
have worn the instrument now eighteen mouths, and derived great benefit from it and 
I hope when I am stronger to say that it is a perfect success. I have been in difierent 
hospitals, but have derived more benefit from Mr. Gillingham than from all or either of 
them. I feel quite sure if there is good to be done to a poor sufferer Mr. Gillingham 
will do it. The first wearing of the instrument is very tiresome, hut this with per- 
severance will soon wear off. 

Believe me, dear madam, yours truly, 
To Mrs. W. M.J. BALE. 

Belhrook, Wa.shfoiid, August 29th, 1887. 

Dear Sir, — In answer to you kind letter, I beg to bear testimony to the great 
benefit derived from your hip-instrument, and am happy to inform you I am almost 
recovered from the dislocated hip, which I owe entirely to your treatment. I have left 
off the instrument more than a year, and have more than once walked a distance of six 
miles without the support or stick, in fact you would be frightened to see the improve- 
ment. Should be pleased to render any aid or information to any sufferer requiring it. 
1 have quite forgotten the day of the week you visit Taunton or should avail myself 
the pleasure of calling on you. You can please make any use of this you think proper. 

I am. sir, j'ours obediently, 

M. J. BALE. 

Koifi. — Here J would remark that some of my most hopelesa cases, where I would mt 
commit myself by promising anything, have turned out the most successful. 



Case 80. — *Miss H , 15 ye<ar.s on crutches. On the instrument 

being fitted this patient was enabled to la,y aside lier crutches and walk 
away from my house. There ai'e one or two facts of interest connected 
with this case. Four years previous to this, when on a journey, I met 
the yoihig lady in a shop ; I lianded her my prospectus and asked her 
to look ab it on her return, as it might suggest a means of helping her. 
During the intermin she was under the treatment of a bone-setter, and 
a large sum was paid for setting the hip, without i-esult. 

On my succeeding, my patient could tell me that 1 gave her a book 
four years ago ; she took ihe book, but felt a little ofiended at my giving 
it, and when home flung it under the drawers. If she had only taken 
the advice it gave she might have been assisted earlier. I meet many 
in this way when travelling. I met, while travelling, in a few months, 
in various towns, four patients — the first on crutches 29 years, second 
24 years, third 18 years, fourth 32 years ; they all came, and put their 
crutches down and walked away without them. 

I met one lady while travelling who felt very much insulted ; she saw 
me again on my return to the station and got into the carriage with 
me ; she began to address me, I said nothing (I simply give my book 
and say no more), but she evidently felt I was no quack, and decided 
before I came to the end of my journey to avail herself of my skill. 
She is helped out of her difiiculty, to the astonishment of her friends ; 
and she writes to apologise for her first resentment of my offering the 
prospectus, and concludes by saying "Whenever you see a sufferer do 
not forget to stop them and give them your book." I see scores in my 
travels who are on crutches who may lay them down instantly. I 
have spoken to them and said "You may lay down those crutches .at 
once and walk if you will take my n.dvice " ; and they have looked at 
me as if I was insane, evidently regarding my suggestions as some 
mercenary attempt to fleece them. The truth is, they have spent so 
much and tried so much that they have no faith in anything. 

* Note.— Five years after Jilt 'uu/ thr, first set nf instrumeJits a second set was supplied, 
when her father said ^' I one a debt of (jratitnte to ijon, Mr. Gillingham, for the help 

rendered my daw/htcr. Some two years before she came to you I paid H a 

hundred cimneas for putting the hip i?i the socket fit waji never put in) ; you have done 
more for ' her than all the treatment previously received. 


Case 81.— Mr. V , London. This gentleman was 26 years on 

crutches; hip from the socket. On the arrival of Mr. V., he said "1 
am come to see what you can do for me." " You will put your crutches 
down in a few minutes when I have done with you." " How do you 
know that, you have not seen me yet V "I know almost all my 
patients the moment I see them, and before the clothes are oft I can 



Anything" ' W^^^^^ clo walkV' "Then you shall pay me ten 

^IrSe ordinary course, this gentleman came again to have the in- 

'Z^^'ltl XJ^^J^e do JTJ then took my arm and 

"t^^'^'^vefSlat though this patient is the most liberal one I 
Pv^r had out of some thousands, still after he left me he did not 
.1 vvell as the c^enerality of them do. Being a very active 
X on Ss IrlL h^^ very fast ; the instrument im^ 

TdPd hi procuress, and he could not give the time and patience to 
overcomTthe trial of the first wearing an instrument. Not only so but 
in thesTlong cases of hip dislocation, where the hip has become partly or 
wholly aS^^^ the action in walking comes partly from the spine, 
SmS walking trying, and it is only slowly and ^-d^Hy to ^e 
overcome. Where there are difliculties and even taihues i have 
nothing to withhold, and I put these cases that patients may not expect 
^00 much. I get vJi-y few failures, for where I see no hope I will not 

slStlv"?ter thetame patient sent for me to see a cripple boy in his 
own Suniv Iss to whom he gave an instrument ; thus, not deriving 
a rthe bl Jfit he^l^^^^^ hoped fof, from the difficulties of his case, he is 
Si lanxloufttt otherimay have relief and help Some year or two 
Xr as the instrument was abandoned (not that it would not prove 
uSssM if ;S had been continued), it was sent back to me not 
a request that I would allow or give something for it but with the hoj^e 
that\ome poor sufferer might benefit by its return this S^-^^-^^^^el 
should inspire others) I could not adjust this instrument to anot er 
case, it is so difficult ; but I soon found a deserving patient with hip 
from socket (been laid up years), and I made her a present of a new 
instrument in the name of the donor ; she has now been raised off hei 
crutches three years, and finds the in.strument a great help. 


I have often noticed, and it seems remarkable that my work will 
run for a time on certain cases, tlien suddenly drop and run on an 
entirely different class of casos-.sometimes on limbs, sometimes ten or 
eleven spine cases right away in succession at other t^^es on hip cases 
Just at this time there were three cases of anchylosis of the hip, they 
were all ladies. One had been on crutches 16 years, the other 15 years, 



and the other eight years. Anchylosis, as previously explained, is the 
cementing of the hip to the pelvis — that is, there is no movable joint, 
and to move the thigh forward is to move the whole of the pelvis and 
make a kind of axis or joint at the lower portion of the lumber region 
of the spine. Sometimes this adhesion may be partly muscular, but 
mostly from disease, where the thigh-bone has become honeycombed to 
the pelvis. In these cases there is generally a contraction of the hip and 
flexing forward of the thigh, which means considerable shortening. In 
two of these cases they were the shortest limbs I ever treated (nearly 
12 inches from the ground), and required in each case a very high 
boot to the instrument. In one case the wounds were still running and 
had been for 15 years, and yet the patient enjoyed good health apart 
fi'om this local affliction ; this is not unusual. In all the three cases 
they laid aside their crutches at once and could walk without them. 
The sound limb gives the principal action in locomotion. As the limb 
is put forward the ancholised limb is left behind, and on raising the 
body it comes forward with a kind of half-step without effort, and thus 
locomotion is effected with comparative ease > but long walks would 
become too tedious. The first writes as follows :— " I get on well with 
the walking." The second : - " I am getting on well with the instru- 
ment ; can keep it on from morn till night without being tired ; but I 
am careful not to do more than ordinary walking." The third : — " I 
do not get on very well ; cannot continue the use of the instrument 
long together." All that may be needed is a re-adjustment This is 
the average general experience in such cases. They have to be tested 
by the use of the appliance. Thus those who suffer from anchylosis of 
the hip-joint may know what to expect when applying for an instru- 
ment. Though they may walk without crutches long walks should be 


. I have headed one of the cases " A Liberal Patient," and I shall now 
take this opportunity of laying a few facts before my readers and future 
patients, and, after I have placed them all side by side, ! will leave 
them to draw their own conclusions In what I say, I do it not by way 
of complaint, but as suggested by my study of human nature 

All mechanists in my branch of usefulness have remarkable cases, 
but I venture to say, and without egotism, that there is no mechanist 
who can show such a succession of cases that I can ; yet, of the thousands of 
sufferers I have relieved, if I were to put all their gifts together above 
what I have charged them, it would not amount to fifteen pounds. 1 might 
■ have acquired money if I had made my fees higher, but it has never 
been my object to fleece my patients; the money-getting (though 1 
. own no more than I can earn) has always been a secondary consideration 
to me. Numbers of my patients, after 10 or 20 years use of 
crutches, have laid them aside at a cost of five or six guineas 
-no remuneration for the help rendered. Most of my patients 
are respectable but hard-working, to whom even five pounds 
are an object, and if I make a charge and am paid I have no further 


claina, neither do I look for more ; but in future those who are well-to- 
do, and can pay, will have to do so. , „ , , ■,. 

For this past fifteen years I have worked all hours to relieve 
sufferin^r ; so much of my own life has gone into my patients' cases that 
I cannot now work more than half the number of hours; and when I 
cease to stand at my bench and work my income ceases. It has never 
been my lot to sit full-dressed in my arm-chair and dictate to others 
what to do ; I do most of the work myself, thus my resources are limited 
and an increase of business, above a certain amount, is no good to me. 
Therefore, whatever I touch in future must pay. I emphasize this be- 
cause the remuneration in the past has not been adequate to the benefits 

During the past twenty years I have given the poor my attention 
gratis ; I shall continue to do the same. During that time I have also 
given my advice gratis to nearly all comers. This I shall continue no 
lono-er. In all charity cases I have adjusted their instruments free of 
charge and when very needy repaired them for nothing and have given 
my time and railway fares free of charge. I say it with thankfulness 
and where there is any failure, I bestow any amount of time to make it 
a success free of charge. But, this is the giving side and experience 
teaches me the more one does for nothing the more one may. I find 
some take advantage of this, wear out their instruments and want them 
rectified for nothing. Most of my patients are thankful and grateful, 
but there are many who have no consideration, which the following facts 
show and these are only illustrations of a number of cases. 


A patient, well-to-do, on crutches nearly the whole of his life, is 
enabled to lay them aside at once. He writes I get on well with 
my instrument, I am going abroad and should like a second one, 
I "paid you six pounds ten shillings for this instrument, how much less 
will you make me another for ? " Sir, — In reply to your letter I beg to 
say I am much surprised at your asking such a question ] you have lost 
sight of me and the benefit I have conferred on you and if I had been 
paid in proportion to the good done I should have been paid sixty 
guineas ; I must decline to make you another instrument." 


A young woman, nearly thirty years on crutches, lays them aside ; 
she was always very grateful and sent me other patients. Some time 
afterwards she dies, when her brother writes and asks me to buy the 
instrument. I replied " I did not sell an instrument, I gave my talent 
and a portion of my life-time to your sister's case ; that I could not 
purchase back again, impo.ssible." Then I was pelted with abuse and 
reminded what she paid for the instrument, which was about six 
guineas. Had she been living the question would not have been asked. 




A patient I helped considerably in liis life died worth £30,000 and the 
survivors send the left-off instruments and asked if I would buy them 
These things are only waste material and it not unfrequently happens 
that after patients are restored and they have left off their appliances 
they will then send and ask me to buy them back, losing sight of 
the benefit I have conferred on them. This is human nature. There 
were ten lepers cleansed, but only one returned to give thanks, and this 
is the average. You see, reader, what with my givings on the one hand, 
and my letting patients do as they like on the other, I may be as poor 
as some of themselves. Why, if I had fleeced my patients like some do, 
I might have retii-ed from business long ago. 

Some time after this a gentleman came with his son, a hopeless case. 
He was helped to walk almost at once. I was beaten down in price and 
then asked for discount I never give discount, if I make an honest 

Some short time after I saw an account of his death and his will 
was proved under £33,000. 


teaches me this, that in future I must be better remunerated, and must 
decide the figures myself, as, you see, some would get all for nothing. 
If you have not the means, you must get your friends to help you, and 
if you are well-to-do, you will have to pay. If not, you will have to go 
on yo\ir crutches. I will conclude this series with two incidents of 


A Surgical Mechanist, of London, was telegraphed for to come into 
Devon, near Exeter, to see a patient. He came first-class, of course ; 
a carriage and pair was ordered at the " London " to take him to the 
patient. He returned, sent a small appliance, foi- which he charged 
five pounds, and one hundred guineas for his journey. Now, if I had 
done this, they would have thought me a clever fellow. 

I was called to London one day to see a gentleman who had been laid 
up some years, paralysed in both leg , from the hips down. On exam- 
ining him, he said "What can you do for me?" "Not anything." 
" ^yhat, not with all your wonderful cases l " " No, I can assist life 
unuer certain conditions, but I cannot give it, I cannot help you." 

Then let me say you are the only honest man that has ever come to 
^e me. Every man, whether doctor, mechanist, or electrician, has been 
going to cure me and I have been under treatment for years. I have 
now spent twelve hundred pounds on my case, and last week I paid an 
electrician forty pounds for a few weeks treatment and I am no better 
to-day than the first day I put myself under treatment. 



Of course, reader, my book is a book of straightforward facts. 
Tradesmen generally do not publish prospectuses after this sort. For 
the best thing to take now-a-day is a good lying advertisement and the 
more some are humbugged, the better they are pleased. 


Kot long since a young gentleman came on crutches, who had not 
walked from infancy. Case like engraving 21. What can you do for 
ray son, said the mother ? Enable him to walk in ten minutes witliout 
his crutches. 

Well, I cannot understand it, we have had the first of skill and 
recently seen Sir W Gull. If these gentlemen cannot help him how 
can you help him to do as you say 1 Here is your difficulty, all the 
medical men in the world cannot give life to a paralj'sed limb, neither 
do they pretend to, the fact that you have secured the first of medical 
skill does not help your son in the least. I cannot give life, but I can 
help him to put down his crutches and walk without them and not need 
them any more. The measure is taken for the instrument. ISTow, said 
the young man, shall I be able to run. Certainly not, but you will do 
ordinary walking. But, see, I can go fast, play at tennis on my two 
crutches, (kc. Well, if you can do all this, you don't want me. Well, 
he said, I do not know quite what to decide. I will decide for you. I 
shall not make the instrument and you will have to go on your 


A young lady, fourteen years on crutches, with leg partly developed, 
knee contracted, and shortening made up by cork boot. The instrument 
was adjusted and the, crutches were laid aside, in less than half an hour 
she could make a fair walk, even without a stick, in fact, she made as 
much progress, in as short a time, as any of my patients similarly 
situated. I said you are getting on nicely, time and practice will make 
walking much ea.sier and I hope you are satisfied. No, I am not, was 
the reply, I am very much disappointed. She really thought I was 
going to perform a miracle and restore the limb. 

Almost as bad as the patient with an artificial eye, who complained 
because he could not see with it. 





Now I pass to another class of cases, similar in treatment, but 
different in kind and embracing disability from affections and 
injuries of ihe knee joint. The instrument adapted to the cases to 
follow is illustrated in engraving (No. 24). In these cases there is no 
extending apparatus, but rest taken on the sitting. Some kneos less 
contracted than in engraving need not the high cork boot here 

Case 82.— Mr. Lakey, of the Albion Club, 
Weymouth. Seven years laid up. On the 
fitting of the instrument, walked at once with- 
out his crutch. 

Albion Club, "Weymouth (now of the Co-oper- 
ative Store, Weymouth), 

April 24th, 1873. 
For several years I was unable to walk without crutches, 
arising from an affection and contraction of the knee joint. 
The instrument Mr. Gillingham supplied me with, is so 
useful that I cannot overvalue it or sufficiently thank him. 
I can now take long walks with the assistance of a stick, 
and am enabled to follow my occupation in comfort. Trust- 
ing that sufferers like myself may avail themselves of Mr. 
GUlingham's skill. 


Mr. Lakey was supplied with a second instru- 
ment in October, 1887. 

Case 83. — Mr. Antell, Margret Marsh, 
Shaftesbury, Laid up 14 years. At Weymouth 
for a change, Mr. Lakey met him on the Parade 
and induced him to come to me. On the fitting 
of the instrument, the same results as in all 
other cases followed. 

Mahgket Maksh, Shaftesbury, April 28th, 1873. 

Dear Sir, — T am thankful to tell you I get on very well with the instrument you made 
me, I have not laid by a day since I had it, previously 1 had to lie by half my time, 
now, I thank God, I can walk miles without a stick and attend to my farming business 
with comfort. I remain, yours faithfully, 


After six years I fitted a second instrument and in January, 1888, 
Mr. Antell sent me a similar case. 

Case 84.— Miss Bagwell, Terminus Street, Weymouth, On a crutch 
seven years. This young woman was followed to her home on a Sunday 
evening after service by Mr. Lakey, who was anxious that every cripple 



should receive the same benefit as himself. He explained his mission 
and how he laid aside his crutch. The young woman came and her 
crutcli was laid aside at once on the fitting of the iu.strument. I have 
had more cases by recommendation in tliis way, than by all the advertise- 
ments I have ever issued. My cases are so remarkable that the public 
will not believe them and News proprietors have even declined my 
advei'tisements as being untrue. 

On another occaasion Mrs Lakey followed a young lady from Church 
who was using crutches and had been doing so for years. She was 
induced to come to me and the crutches were laid aside. In September, 
1887, being at Weymouth, hearing my patient was home, I called on 
her. Miss Lee, of Grove Buildings, George Street. She had been from 
England, I had not heard of her for seven years. She was still wearing 
the instrument and as she was just on the point of leaving for America, 
she gave the order for another instrument. The same day I met Mr. 
Lakey, I had not seen him for years, though he continually sends me 
patients. He still had his instrument in use and had worn it some 
fifteen years. This is the kind of testimony that is most encouraging 
to me as well as to suSerers, and I prefer to give an old instead of a new 
case, as it shows more satisfactory results. 

Case 85. — The late Miss W , of Exeter. Twenty-seven years on 

a crutch. Leg undeveloped, contracted knee, five-inch shortening ; 
could walk half-a-mile without her crutch on the fitting of the instru- 

Case 86. — Mrs. Raddon, Summerland Street, Exeter. Thirty-two 
years on a crutch— nearly the whole of her life. Mrs. Raddon was met 

in the street at Exeter by Miss W and induced to come to me. In 

less than ten minutes the prop was laid aside and a good distance walked 
without it. This is another illustration like that of Mr. Lakey's receiving 
good and feeling anxious to direct others. The reader may confer a similar 
benefit by posting this prospectus to some suflferer. 

Summerland Street, Exeter, Sept. 20th, 1875. 
Dear Sir,— After walking with a crutch thirty-two years, I have the pleasure to 
inform you that your instrumCDt has enabled me to walk in comfort, and has also given 
me the benefit of having both hands at liberty. I consider the result in my case truly 
wonderful. I can only say that I wish I had heard of you before. 

I remain. Sir, yours truly, 
Mr. Gillingham. C. RADDON. 

Mrs Raddon has now worn her instrument for 15 years. Writing 
in January, 1886 — " Since the repair and adjustment of my instrument 
it does beautifully, I can wear it with perfect ease." 

This is the instrument first supplied. 



Case 87. — Mr. Hatchings, Jeweller, iic, Shepton Mallet. On a 
crutch twenty-five years ; undeveloped limb, contracted knee, six-inch 
shortening. After the adjusting of the instrument, the crutches were 
laid aside and Mr. Hutchings walked to the railway station, a distance of 

Shepton Mai.let, June 20th, 1871- 

Dear Sir, — I feel a pleasure in recommending all who are so unfortunate as to 
require assistance of a surgical mechaniBt, to give you a trial. Twenty years ago I fell 
and injured my knee. After going through several tortures at Salisbury Infirmary I 
was left so as to be compelled to walk on crutches. On seeing your advertisement I 
was led to pay you a visit and to my great astonishment and that of my friends, who 
thought my case impossible, I dispensed with my crutch a.s soon as the instrument was 
applied and walked to the railway station ; I can now walk three miles without a 
&tick. Yours truly, 


Case 88. — Mr. Stephenson, Commercial Road, Weymouth. Twenty 
years on a crutch. Hip loose in the socket, knee slightly contracted, 
limb undeveloped and seven-inch shortening. On the adjusting of the 
instrument, could walk immediately. 

Prince Cottage, Commercial Road, "Weymouth, Sept. 1^77. 
(Removed to 34, "Watting Street, Canterbury.) 

Dear Sir, — I find the instrument you made for me invaluable, I have worn it every 
day since I had it and am able to stand all day without tiring and can walk three or 
four miles with ease. I hope you may long live to benefit many fellow -sufferers. I 
have the honour to be Yours ever grateful, 

To Mr. Gillingham. W. STEPHENSON. 

Case 89.— Mrs. Willis, 25, Tavistock Place, Tavistock Square, Lon- 
don. Laid up 27 years. From time to time was under the first of 
medical treatment. Within ten minutes after the instrument was fitted 
the crutches were laid aside and the patient walked without assistance. 

25, Tavistock Place, Tavistock Square, July 13th, 1880. 
Dear Sir,— I am happy to tell you I have found my instrument a very great boon 
to me, it answers admirably. 

Yours, &c., 


Case 90.— Mr. Skinner, Cheltenham. Twenty -four years on crutches. 
I met Mr. Skinner in a shop at Cheltenham ten years previous to his 
coming to me. I spoke to him and told him he may lay down his 
crutches at once ; he had then been using them 14 years, but there was 
a lack of faith, and his parents, as well as himself, thought it a folly to 
anticipate such a thing. About two years since Mr. Skinner came to 
me, when he was enabled to lay down his crutches and walk away. 



238, High Strekt, Cheltenham, December, 1880. 
Dear Sir, — I am trying to send you another patient who walks on crutches. I 
can get about very well indeed. I have surprised the people here, and I have been 
heartily congratulated on the success of the instrument. 

Yours very truly, 


N.B. — The patient referred to by Mr. Skinner, who had been laid up 
some seven years, came in due coui-se, and the crutches wei'e laid aside ; 
and five years after supplying the tirst instrument to Mr. Skinner he 
came for a second. 

Case 91. — Mr. S , Tiverton. Between thirty and forty years on 

crutches. The limb in this case was very weak, small, and contracted, 
deficiency made up by a high cork boot. On the fitting of the instru- 
ment there was exceeding timidity and sensitiveness ; it is so with some 
patients, even the thought of walking again overcomes some for a short 
time ; however, the crutches were laid aside. 

Tiverton, December 15th, 1880. 
Dear Sir, — I am quite satisfied with my instrument ; all that is required is to throw 
away the nervous feeling which I e.xperienced when at Chard. I found on trying it 

alone that I could walk even without the assistance of a stick 

Yours truly, 

J. W. S. 

Case 92. — Mr. A. E. Miller, Bristol. Some years on crutches, from 
injury received to the knee-joint ; crutches laid aside on the use of the 

HoLLYBANK, 2, Redland Grove, Bhistol, Dec. 17th, 1880. 
Dear Sir, — I have been using your instrument nearly five weeks, and am glad to 
tell you it gives me more support every day ; I can now walk a couple of miles a day 
with the use of two sticks, without feeling much fatigued ; I hope soon to be able to 
walk with the assistance of one stick 

Yours faithfully, 


At a later date a second instrument was supplied to fall back on in 
case of breakage or repair. 



Case 93. — Mrs. Hunt, Weymouth. Some time on crutches; knee 
contracted to a right angle, anchylosed, sensitive and painful. The 
crutches laid aside on the fitting of the instrument. 

36, Park Street, Weymouth, June 19th, 1882. 
Dear Sir, — I must apologise for not writing before; I am getting on nicely with 
my apparatus, and can walk a good distance out of doors, with the assistance of an 

umbrella, and -vith comparative ease Hoping you may be long spared to 

benefit sufTerers like myself. 

Yours truly, 


Cask 94. — Miss Friend, six years on crutches. Knee contracted to a 
right angle and very senitive ; the crutches laid aside on the fitting of 
the instrument, and a fair, good walk set up at once, 

Hackwells, DpLTON, Devon, June 28th, 1882. 

To Mhs. G., — It gives me pleasure to write and tell you how nicely niy instrument 
is answering. For a week alter we arrived here I got on exceedingly well, went out 
to see my friends, who were surprised and delighted at the successful issue. I am very 
thankful for the benefit received, aud hope Mr. Gillingham will long be spared to 

relieve others similarly afflicted _ 

Believe me, yours sincerely, 


Case 95.— Mrs. Brown, 93, Dock Street, Newport, Mon. Knee 
anchylosed to a right angle ; six years on crutches, which were laid aside 
as in the previous case, and followed by the same successful walking. 
Mr. B. sets to work looking up other sufferers and writes :— " Mrs. B. 
walks well, and I am looking up others, as all should know the blessing 
there is in store for them." 


Case 96.— A. Wrixon, Salway Ash, near Beaminster. In this case 
there was an excision of the knee-joint, but the union gave way. This 
was either the result of bad surgery or the want of unions matter, as in 
Lock's case (engraving 20). The patient having no knee, with the 
weight and no union, the tendency is to give, and there may be a 
serious break-down at any moment. For some time the patient took to 
crutches ; when he came to me I made an instrument to set the knee 
and take the weight off the joint, making up the deficiency with cork 
boot. The crutches were dispensed with at once, and Wrixon has con- 
tinued since the fitting of the instrument, in March, 1880, to get his 
living as a traveller with sundry goods, &c. 

In selecting these cases I have gone into all the little details about 
them, that sufferers who want to know all about their own case may be 
helped to the solution of any difficulties, and encouraged to hope tor 
some real assistance. 

Case 97 —Mr W. C. Davidson, 143, Firpack Street, Dennistown, 
Glasgow. On crutches from childhood; the limb useless without 
mechanical aid ; the foot so set that it made it more than ordinarily 
difficult to tit a suitable boot and instrument. The instrument was 
supplied some four or five years ago. ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 3^^^^ ^^^^ 

Dkau Siii -I am doing well with my instrument, wearing it constantly from mom 
till nTght i/ gives me littfe trouble. I can walk long distances m town and country. 
I trust you are keeping busy at your noble e-ployment ^.^^^^^^^^ 





Sninal cases are more or less intricate and perplexing. There are the 
si4' e t-r;nd the more complex /^^/^-V-Srs mo t 
about the spinal cord and brain, the seat of these affections Ti e more 
simple cases are those of lateral curvature where the curve s com 
pensatory, arising from one short leg, loose habits of « tUng ^^a^^^^^^^ 
and Ivin- from carrying weights on one side, or from weakness. 
They •"entreated mechaificallyt or by lying and rubbing they ar 
materially helped, the curve being arrested and [^^^l^^f J^^^^.^^^^ 
carry weights on their heads m their daily work have the most erect 
Tnd perfect spines, as the will calls all the muscles into action to sustain 
:L 'weight, ^hus' keeping the spine erect and P-venting latera 
cur^'atule, which is simply muscular traction-one set ot muscles 
niiUinj? more powerfully than the other. , 
' Sless simple cases are those of curves of the spine or angular 
curvature, the effect mostly of overstrain or concussion, but sometimes 
caused b; a blow produced by a fall. This form of curvature may 
produce paralysis of'one or more or all of the limbs-it entirely depends 
where loLed. The remedy in these cases is a course of medical treat- 
xnent to arrest the wasting away of the vertebra and a ^echanical 
arrangement to relieve the spine of pressure while the disease is bein^ 
treated and the patient restored to tolerably good health. The curve is 
scarcely ever cured except in simple cases or when taken m its early 

The more complicated cases are those wl.ere the patient is partly or 
wholly paralysed, or is weakly and failing, or in cases where there 
appears to be a well-formed spine with a fair muscular development 
and no trace of curvature. This may arise from concu.ssion, effusion of 
the spinal cord, internal pressure, or inflammation of the spinal mem- 
brane. Sometimes these aftections may be constitutional or brought on 
by sudden shocks of fright, and often lead to the partial or entire 
paralysis of a leg or arm ; when entire it generally proceeds from the 
cervical vertebra; of the neck or brain. Such cases are very perplexing 
to the professional man, requiring great skill and a long time m treat- 
ment ; the-, cannot be hastily cured, as nature will take her time year 
after year to bring about the necessary repair. All such cases are not 
by any means hopeless, and patients should not be desponding because 
of the time required for their relief— hope on, hope ever. I have seen 
patients restored to health after lying for 10 and 12 years. Why is 
thisi Becixuse the body changes every few years, and during these 
chan'res, under judicious treatment, restoration is carried on. I have 
treated patients myself who have laid for years, having spine affection 
but not the least curve ; they were raised and restored by appliances 
made to relieve the. spine. How they got well 1 cannot tell you, but it 



was no doubt in consequence of the relief given ])y mechanism to set 
and rest the spine. Another cause of spinal weakness is abuse — a drain 
of the natural energy ; a thing I ought not to mention, but why should 
I refrain when I know it is undermining the constitutions of thousands 
and leading to all sorts of maladies. Nothing is so baffling to the medical 
attendant as being misled. 

One day a j'^oung man, with a very weak spine, was brought to me by 
his father. He was in an exhausted state. 1 saw no curve, and on 
sounding the spine, and putting pressure on every vertebrre, I found 
there was no tenderness or trace of eft'usion or disease. " Well, young 
gentleman, excuse me, you have no spine affection nor curve; you 
require no instrument ; you know the evil habits you have been 
pi'actising, give them up and your spine will become strong." It came 
down upon my patient like a thundei'-clap. He admitted I was right, 
but had not understood the evil. 

Some time after an officer from one of Her Majesty's ships came to 
see me — a similar case. A few questions, and I touched the seat of the 
malady without putting my hand near him. He admitted if. What 
did he say? " At times I am so wild that I feel I want to jump over- 
board." 'Why 1 Because of the drain on the spinal cord and brain, 
which is the cause of impotency and insanity ; and yet you must not 
speak of these things ; you complain to the doctor but do not tell him 
the v^rhole truth. 

Until recently, nearly all spinal cases were treated mechanically. 
The introduction of L. A. Sayre's (M.D., of NeAv York) treatment by 
suspension and Plaster of Paris bandage, has opened up a new field, the 
beneficial results of which are beyond question in some cases Some ai'e 
enthusiastic enough to say that now the surgeon is entirely lifted out of 
the hands of the mechanist. But such is not the case. Whilst a large 
number of cases can be treated on Sayre's plan, there are those 
where mechanism is and will be still required. Not only so, but in 
some cases where there has been marked improvement by Plaster of 
Paris bandaging, and it is not pleasant nor convenient to go on from 
year to year, a proper fitting support will be found necessary to secure 
the results which the constant bandaging has effected. Where the 
patient improves in health and strength, it may be dispensed with, but 
weakly laxed spines, though the patient may be benefited, the spine goes 
down the moment the bandage is off and, therefore, needs a suj)port. 


Notwithstanding the beneficial results derived from suspending and 
setting the spine, many orthopoedic surgeons take exception to it ; one 
thinks it a hard kind of treatment and adheres to mechanism entirely. 
Another, while he dispenses Avith the plaster of Paris bandage, adopts 
Poro Plaster Felt, adopting Sayre's plan of suspension, while the felt is 
being applied in a heated and plastic condition. Others adopt the 
original plan ; another dispenses with the whole of these forms of treat- 
ment and has recourse to friction, manipulation, ic. If the cases 



recorded in *Mrs. Godfrey's work are genuine, and I have no reason to 
io^a t them from what I can learn of her work, her treatment, being 
fri:t?on nci manipulation, the bringing into play muscles that are :n- 
active. under other forms of treatment, she has outstripped both 

"if its"? A^ular Curvature, or Pott's disease, some object to 
Sa!"e' p an of suspl^nsion, while they adopt his plan of bandaging the 
spie, and to do this they lay the patient fiat, or suspend him horizon- 
tally n a net and while in this position the bandage is applied. 
' Xeo^^iectiou to suspension is that the inner surface of the vertebr. 
having wasted away by extending, you leave wedge-like cavities, theie 
beh.g nothing to fill them and this may result m paralysis or serious 

"^Nearly every practitioner has some plan of his own for trying to 
accomplish the same results. 


The question comes-which is the best mode of treatment 1 There 
are no cases on which there is more divided opinion than those of the 
spine and none that have so baffled the skill of both surgeon and 
Sanidan. Every one must answer for himself, looking at it from 
his own experience and stand-point. 

From twenty-years of experience, and looking at the matter^ from my 
own stand-point and as a mechanist, I give preference to Sayre s original 
plan of suspension (of which there are modifications and the plaster of 
Paris bandage. This 1 must qualify by saying, only ^vhere the patient 
is a fair subject for his treatment ; for example, I recently fitted a lady, 
72 years of age, with a spine support, who could not go under the treat- 
ment of a plaster of Paris bandage, and, therefore, not a fair subject ; 
but I will select two cases treated by myself on Sayre s plan, one of 
angular and the other of lateral curvature. 


I was called to Leeds to see several patients ; one was suffering from 
Angular Curvature between the dorsal and lumbar region ; he seemed 
much distressed and in great pain, his breath was catchy and he leaned 
with his hands on his knees for support. " What can you do^ tor him i 
asked his doctor. " I should put him up in Sayre"s bandage." 

I had nothing prepared, the doctor had not seen a case so treated. 
The matter was decided, the materials soon procured, and a temporary 
suspender erected ; the patient was drawn up on tip-toe and experienced 
relief, the bandage I soon put on and in due course laid the patient on a 
couch to rest, after which he walked away in comfort. He returned 
the next day to work at his trade (a tailor). Three months after his 
doctor waited on him to renew the bandage, but the patient declined, he 
had experienced so much comfort and relief and his health had so 
improved, that he feared he should not be so comfortable again. 

♦Published by John Churchill, New Burlington Street, London. 


Now. as a mechanist, I mean to say that no mechanical contrivance, 
as formerly employed, could accomplish such results. The advocates of 
felt may say what they like about the disadvantages of not being able to 
wash the patient, sores, perspiration, and the like ; there may, in some 
cases, be these disadvantages, but they are trifling compared to the 
advantages secured by a permanent support, made from an accurate and 
well-applied bandage. In such cases no support that would be constantly 
taken olf to change and wash, could be equal to that which sets the spine 
and gives it perfect rest. I have been surprised that the plaster jackets 
generally are so clean after being worn so long. Since the above case, 
I have treated a number with the same satisfactory i-esults. 

Engraving 25 illustrates a case of angular curvature. When the 
curve is low, it generally aflects the legs and extremities, when higher it 
afft'cts the arms and extremities. 

The ordinary support adapted to such cases is illustrated by 
engraving 26, provided with a padded pelvic band, to which is 
attached two lateral crutches to support and prevent the body leaning 




forward on the wasting and distressed 
vertebnB. By this means the weight of 
head and shoulders are conveyed to 
the hips or over the crest of the illium, 
affording great relief to the sufferer. 
A hollow padded back- piece is provided, 
worked by rack and key, to give pressure 
and rest on the transverse process of the 
spine, at the same time leaving the dis- 
tressed and sensitive angle free from 
pressure, the front is likewise supported 
by a laced stay. In the more complicated 

forms the 

engraving 27). 

are diff extent. 
Where the 

angle is high between the shoulders or 
neck, it is not only necessary to have the 
ordinary support, but a mast or support 
attached to the back coming up over the 
head, so as to support it by means of a 
rest to pass under the chin, with a swivel 
suspender to allow the head to turn 
witliout falling forward on the distressed 

I may here deviate a little from my course before passing on to the 
explanation of the following engraving. In that section which trea.ts 
of Lateral Curvature, I have endeavoured to show that Curvature in 
som'e cases is compensatory, arising from one short leg or otherwise. 
The same thing may occur in a case of posterior or anterior curvature 
where there is no caries or actual disease of the vertebrae. An 
anchylosed hip-joint will produce a curve anteriorally. A short time 
ago a little girl was brought to me with prominent anterior curve, 
similar to engraving, 29. The stomach was very forward and the child 
had to keep her balance on tip-toe to prevent her swaying backwards on 
to the back of her head. Strange to say the case was congenital — she 
was born with her hips out of the sockets. There were two muscular 
sockets, but being dislocated backwards, the hip-joints were slightly 
contracted, or flexed. To stand erect she had to arch the stomach 
forward and make an anterior curve at the lumber of the spine to keep 
her gravity. Anxious that something should be done for the child she 
was taken to London to about ten eminent surgeons, the consultations 
were continuous, the advice given tit each consultation being only known 
to the parent. Thus the lady paid twenty guineas right off for con- 

Now I am come to you, said the parent, for the opinions are so 
different that I am in a worse fix than ever. What can you do for the 
child ? Not anything by way of restoi'ation, the only suggestion I can 
offer is to construct boots so as to save her wnlking on the toes, which 
will give the necessary rest and thus prevent her swinging backwards, 
by so doing compensatory balancing will be materially assisted, with the 
addition of a stiff boned stay to support the spine. 




To illustrate more clearly the nature of angular 
curvature I have provided the engraving 28, 
which gives the natural curve of the spinal 
column. The dotted wedged line opposite A 
shews the wedge cavities produced by the wa.sting 
away of the inner surface of the vertebrae, so 
that when the spine sinks forward the back 
projects and forms in the dotted line A an 
angular curve, so that any support that will 
prevent the patient leaning forward gives the 
gi'eatest relief. In cases where there is no support 
the patient will continually rest his elbows on a 
table, or his hands on his knees, or elsewhere to 
get relief. I would further note here that as 
the nerves branch out from the spinal column 
and the lemela and vertebrae waste away the 
keen edges are brought together and nip the 
nerves, when the extremities refuse to obey the 
will, resulting in paralysis, thus the importance 
of a support to relieve the pressure. I would 
further remark that when there has been waste 
of the inner surface and a considerable sinking 
forward serious consequences would ensue if the 
spine were extended to its normal lines, as it 
would open the wedge cavities. Therefore 
the spine must not be distressed but assisted ; 
and not unfrequently, after judicioucs medical 
and mechanical treatment, the disease wears itself 
out, and, although the curve is not reduced, the 
patient is restored to fairly good health, and in 
some cases can lead an active business life. 

Engraving 28 also illustrates anterior cur- 
vature This may arise from accident or the 
wasting away of the vertebrfe from without. 
This causes the back to arch in at B and the 
stomach to come forward (as illustrated at the 
12 dorsal vertebra;) The kind of suppoi-t 
generally supplied for anterior curvature is 
28 illustrated by engraving 29. 

A pelvic band is secured just above the hips, and further sup- 
ported by joint lacings over the crest of the illium. To the belt 
is secured two lateral crutches to come well up in front, a back piece 
with padded shoulder plates B and A, supported by the strap O, 
in addition to which is the abdomen stay E secured to the lateral 
uprights. The tendency of this support is to rest the spine and reduce 
the curve. 




By way of illustration I 
will give a case or two of 
angular curvature. The 
patient I shall now refer 
to (case 98) was a soldier 
exposed in the camp ; in- 
valided home and dis- 
charged. He was in the 
Natal Hospital for some 
time; they could not tell 
what was the matter with 
him ; he came home, and 
his case developed into pos- 
terior curvature ; he was 
some time at Taunton Hos- 
pital (an out-patient) but 
with no benefit. He was 
recommended to me. ^ I 
discovered he was suffering 
from posterior curvature. 
I said, "You don't want 
physic, you want some 
means that will give you 
rest." I made him the ap- 
paratus needed. He came 
to me weak and stooping ; 
the result of the rest afforded 
by the support you will 
learn in his letter, and 
this one case will illustrate 
scores of similar ones. 
High Street, North Petherton, August 1st, 1881. 
VivK-a. Sir —I fiud the spine support you made me in June last is invaluable. I 
ha?e .Torn Tt every day since I had it, and am able to stand all day withoiit tmng, and 
can\™a long Journey with ease. Trusting that sufferers like myself may avail 

themselves of Mr. Gillingham's skill, _ _ 

I remain, sir, yours 1rulv, 


Five years after I supplied Mr. Clapp with a second spinal support ; 
while wearing the support he was collector for the Pearl Life Assurance 
Company, under Mr. Coleman, superintendent, Taunton, m which 
capacity he would walk ten and fifteen miles a day. Recently^ he has 
left off his support and is doing his work effectually without it. ihe 
following is a similar case : — 

Case 99. 

Ham, West Buckland, near "Wellington, Sept. 24tb, 1886. 
Dkar Sir —I have now worn the support twelre months, and well tested its value. 
AIv back is painful at times, but I can by no means walk without it. I injured my 
iJno in the Nile Campaign by the full of a camel, which pitched me overhead and m 
fillinET my back came in contact with a rock. 1 was not able to move, and lost all 
power of tlie extremities. I was sent to Wady Haifa Hospital ; after being there 



some months was sent to Cairo, and placed under Surgeon-Major Martin, where I 
received the best of treatment. When I could he moved I was sent to England under 
the care of Surgeon-Major Williams, Netley Hospital. I remained there some months 
and was then invalided from the service. They could do no more for me. But, dear 
sir, I am happy to inform you I can now walk three or four miles every day with the 
aid of a stick. ' I shall be only too glad to recommend sufferers, and if this letter is of 
any service to encourage others you can make use of it. 

Yours truly, 



In latem.1 curvature one set of muscles act more powerfully than the 
other. In the human body the muscles in a state of health are neutral, 
anythmg that disturbs the balance of power sets up the contraction and 
curvature. I have seen sound straight spines after weakening sickness 
develope into the worst of curvature from lying in unnatural positions 
while the frame has been in a lax state. Curvature sometimes arises 
from loose habits, such as standing on one side, nursing on one arm, 
pressure, overstrain, but too often I have found it hereditary. 

No cases are so difficult to treat mechanically, especially when they are 
decided and stubborn, as those of lateral curvature. I have never seen 
a thoroughly decided case cured and very few much improved and then 
only when taken in the early stage. 


Fn<rravin-s 30 and 31 illustrate lateral curvature of the spine. In 
En-iaxin s ^u a te and the back considerably 

T:'Z<^ty with lateral cuvvatu.. is that when 
leciuceainib ^ ^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ becomes set and decided, when the 

The difficulty 

not •in-psted "earlv, the curve h^^-^^--^- ■, i • i. 

tebrrSlin to^ -otate laterally on their axis and the ribs begin to 
Wm and 'row out posteriorally. No mechanism that I have ever seen 
toim anci ^row uu t extended from time to time 

has yet produced a cuie. The ^F-e^^^^)^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^ considerably 

reduced in young and mobile spines. 
This does not at all times prevent it 
from twisting laterally, and the ribs 
striking out from their facets diagonally, 
and thus giving the fullness under one 
shoulder as illustrated in skeleton (en- 
graving 31). In such cases where the 
patient is not treated with plaster of 
Paris support (poro felt supports for 
these cases, in my opinion, are useless) a 
mechanical contrivance is employed after . 
the pattern of engraving 32. To the 
upright back-piece is secured a clip like 
the hand to act on the prominent side, 
adjusted by means of rack and screw, 
worked by a key ; or otherwise arranged 
so that the half on the prominent side 
is laced tight to the centre back bar, 
while on the depress side laced loose ; 
but there is no fixed rule, as various cases 
are differently treated and modified. In 
early mobile cases a central back-piece is 
provided, divided in the centre, to press 
on the transverse process of the spine; 
this is fixed to a pelvic band, at the top 
two crutches branching out like two 
horns, thus, with a spring back-piece, 
giving rest and allowing motion. 
Not long since one of the senior surgeons of one of the principal 
London hospitals sent me a spinal case. On an interview with him he 
asked me this question, " What is your honest opinion of the treatment 
of spinal cases generally, taking them from your own experience and 
standpoint, and what is the average success]" " To arrive at this we 
must take all the cases that come under treatment. The tendency of all, 
even essay writers, is to give the successful cases, but what we really 
want is not only the successful ones, but all the failures, then we shall 
arrive at an answer to your question." " That is it." T know of cases 
of spinal curvature that have been under the first of medical and 
mechanical treatment when the parents or patient not being 
satisfied with the success have gone to others equally skilled in 
treating spinal cases, and so they have continued ; and, in spite of all 


that has been done, though the patients have been relieved, yet curva- 
ture has continued to go on under the instrument, especially when the 
spine has begun to give a spiral twist as in engraving 31. The vertebrae 
rotates on its axis to the growing out of the ribs posteriorally. Honestly, 
I have never seen a decided case of lateral curvature cured ; it may be 
improved and arrested, but not cured, especially where there is a 
disposition, constitutional or otherwise, to curvature. Curvature will 
sometimes come on after sickness and bodily weakness, from not lying 
straight when the muscles are in a laxed condition. P]xample — a young 
young lady 1 8 brought to me for double lateral curvature, which came 
on after fever. I took the necessary measure and made preparations to 
fit the support ; meantime I gave instructions that she was to give up 
the bed and lie perfectly flat on her back on a mattress. On her return 
home she caught violent cold and had to lie in bed six weeks. During 
that time she lay on a mattress, and when restored came to have the 
spinal support fitted. On looking at the spine I found the curve had 
entirely disappeared. Note. — There was a disposition in the spine to 
correct itself and the straight lying did it without a spinal support. 
Here is the secret of cure in these cases, in their early stages especially,, 
but young people somehow have a crook in their temper and will not 
lie ; they know best. When lateral curvature first manifests itself 
young patients can do more for themselves than either doctor or 
mechanist — lie straight, and when sitting use Gillingham's inclined spine 
chair, swing with the hands, and then lie straight on a hard surface on 
the back for an hour, strip the back and lie straight on the face, or 
twist the spine opposite to the curve, then get some one to rub up and 
down the hollows or transverse pos.sess of the spine in the direction of 
the dotted lines (engraving 30) ; thus stimulate the nerve centres and 
effect a cure. 


Case 100.— A young lady, now between twenty and thirty years of 
age, who has had a tendency to lateral curvature from a child, was for 
years under the best orthopoedic surgeons in London. No expense was 
spared and hundred of pounds have been spent to secure the desired 
results but in vain. Deformity still went on under the instruments 
and this is but an illustration of scores of cases. The patient was 
brought to me and under my care some years, no improvement ; the 
mother anxiously took her to town again ] she was under the best 
orthopaedic treatment for twelve months ; on her return to me she was 
much worse, shorter in stature and the curve more decided 1 felt 
grieved that (though I made another apparatus) I could not do anything 
for her However, the supports were shortly thrown aside and she lay 
upon her back on a hard board for some eighteen months or two years, 
when Sayre's work fell into her hands. 1 was consulted on the matter 
of Sayre's treatment, but I felt undecided. The young lady determined 
to give it a trial if I would again take her case in hand. The first 



bandage was applied ; when taken down from the suspender she was 2^ 
inches taller. Every day she practised self-suspension by my suspender 
(engraving 66), which was hung to a beam in her bedroom. The figure 
rapidly altered; in a few week-s"! was sent for to remove the bandage 
and apply another, when she increased in height another inch ; all her 
dresses had to be let down four inches. Daily suspension was still 
practised. My patient would suspend by her head and hands for some 
time every day, in which exercise she experienced great relief. In a 
few months the second bandage was removed and the third applied ; 
not much difference in height, but muscles of the spine stronger and 
fast developing. The third bandage was worn five months, when I was 
sent for to apply the fourth ; I found my patient wonderfully improved, 
and the tone of her general health very good. The height increased 
from the time of applying the first bandage 4^ inches, and the frame 
assumed its natural proportions. 

While the curve in this case will never be entirely reduced, because 
not taken at an early stage, still the improvement and a:dvantage of 
this treatment are so marked as to confer an incalculable boon on the 

Another advantage, my patient was a good one ; she co-operated with 
me and tried all she could to get better ; and here let me say it is 
perfectly useless for patients to begin unless they decide to take the 
proper course of treatment through a period of timenecessary to attain 
successful results. 

It is five years since I published the above statement, and my patient 
has continued the bandages until now. I fitted the last plaster support 
in January, 1888. She is remarkably well and in the enjoyment of good 
health ; these bandages have been in continuous use over a period of 
eight or nine years, being i^enewed every six, nine, or twelve months. 
The number she has had I cannot say. In addition to this she has 
continually practised self -suspension by the neck and hands by means of 
a suspender secuied to a staple or crook fixed in the beam in her 
bedroom. The spine when suspended is almost straight, but the fulness 
of the ribs, previously referred to, from the twisting of the spine is 
still manifest. When the plaster of Paris is abandoned a light support 
must take its place. One remark I would make here — this is a case of 
a curved spine in a healthy subject. No j^atient with a diseased spine or 
with organic mischief could have continued such a persistent course of 
treatment. To these more sensitive cases I will now refer. 



These are amongst the most mysterious and complicated, inas- 
much as there is no trace of curvature and the sensitive part is only 
detected by passing the fingers, or some warm substance down the spine. 
I will give you a few of the older cases, as the patients are now living. 



Case 101. — Miss Innals (Durston), patient of Dr. Fester's This 
yovxng woman, 30 years of age, had lain in bed for two years and half ; 
no power to stand or walk, frame well developed, spine perfectly straight. 

She went ofi' into a coma on my first entering the room: 1 stood over 
her and lifted her • she seemed as dead as a log ; soon came round and 
could tell all we had been talking about ; frequently went off in this way. 
I felt I could not do any good and declined to have anything to do with 
the case. Some months after I was entreated to try something. I fitted 
a support to give rest and take off pressui-e ; when fitted, my arm was 
taken and she walked quietly across the bedroom. I left my patient 
and thought no more of the case. 

Case 102. — About the same time I was called to Broadmaiue, Dor- 
chester, by Mrs. Dukes, of Woodsford, to see a Mr. Watts, a patient 
who had been laid up five years from spine affection. 

I gave little hope. The patient was stout, spine straight, no power 
in his legs, the result of concussion. Nothing so perplexing to the 
surgeon as cases of this kind ; patients lie year after year from effusion, 
pressure, concussion, or inflammation of the spinal membrane, and 
unless the pathological state of the spine is known they are brought to 
a stand. However, I made a support to take oflHhe pressure, in which 
he found great relief. Four years passed away. Being called near 
Broadmaine to fit a leg to a gentleman who had lost his in the Bath 
accident. While driving through the village I called to see Mr. Watts, 
to my surprise found he had gradually grown better and was then 
following his business ; the support he still wore and could not do with- 
out it. Surprised at such results, I came home and wrote to Miss Innals 
not expecting a reply, thinking she may be dead. To my surprise I 
received a letter to say that she had grown better from the day I fitted 
the instrument and was now following her business as a dressmaker, and 
would soon come and see me. 

1 saw Miss Innals about twelve months ago, she had been then 
wearing her support eleven or twelve years, with one or two adjustments 
and recovering, but she could not do without it. Mr. Watts wore his 
support some years, but in time grew the better of it and left it off'. 
The following is a letter received from him last year :— 

Broadmaixp., Dorset, August 19th, 1887. 

Dear Sir,-I am very pleased to get a line from you As to my progress, I am 
thankful to be able to say " well "-so well that I have left off weanng the spine 
support vou made mo, which proved quite a success in my recovery I Icit it ott three 
summers' ago and have not put it on since. I never should have been restored 

■without it. , . , „ ,, 

Yours faithlully, 


In both the above cases there was no trace of curvature, and to all 
appearance well developed spines. 



I will now bring this subject of the spine to a close by giving two more 
cases, one of effusion, the other of concussion. 


Case 103.-I was sent for to treat a young lady of Bath, Miss B— . 
The case appeared to me so hopeless that I promised no success. I could 
Inlv use the means and hope for the results. There was no curvature o 
any k nd the spine being apparently well formed but the patien 
sXied continuous pain u| and down the spme. She had been in bed 
near y three years, being at times troubled with the mos frightful 
Sreams She was a kindly, patient, christian young woman of abou 18. 
On sounding the spine 1 c'ould trace the organic mischief by the iiinaliing 
at the most sensitive parts. I said I can promise you no real help 
though I am come provided with a poro plastic felt support to mould to 
your^ine, your only hope is in fixing it and preventing this con inual 
Sing aAd irritation. JRest still, hope on, hope on ever bu rest free 
from irritation. I arranged my moulding cylinder heated by lamp- see 
engraving 78-and fixed the suspender to the ceilmg. On helping my 
patient from bed, I found she could not stand, legs weak and contracted, 
and arms fragile. Well, I said, you cannot have this moulded now, you 
are so weakly, but she entreated me to continue (I detail thus to 
encourage sufferers). I sat my patient on a box and suspended her by 
the neck and wrist slightly, just to steady and support the spme whilst 
sitting in a few minutes the support was moulded from hip to shoulder. 
Before I had finished my patient fainted, but as the wrists were firmly 
secured, no harm could come. I finished the work, then released her 
and allowed her head to rest on my shoulder for a few moments, she 
soon became conscious. I then took her in my arms and laid her m bed 
left her a few hours and came back again. She was very cheerful, much 
easier and felt thankful she had prevailed on me to mould the support. 
1 left her and did not hear anything about her for twelve months or two 

years, when a lady wrote to me to say that Miss B had grown better 

from 'the day the support was fitted, was quite restored and had just 

Some short time ago a medical gentleman referring to my cases said : Of course you 
have medical assiitance ivith you in your difficult cases ? Never had one yet, Sir, and I 
have treated thousands of different cases. How about the responsibiUty 1 The patients 
take thnt, or I will not touch them. Where I see there is a possibiluy of risk, I wtll 
have nothing to do with them. 


Case 104. — Mr. C , Glasgow, a professional gentleman specialist 

and aiurist. Received spinal injury some twenty-four years^ before 
being mechanically treated. When railway travelling was in its infancy 
and the carriage compartments simply divided by a low back rest, there 
was some violent shunting, which jerked the patient from his seat and 
caught him (m the back of the seat just in the hollow of the back. This 
deprived him of partial power in his legs, so that for many years he had 
to lean forward on two sticks, di-agging his toes one after the other at 



every step when walking. The Doctor heard of me some ten years pre 
previously, but scorned any idea of help. At Nottingham Lighting 
Exhibition he purchased one of my heating arrangements, on seeing a 
testimonial he sent to the manufacturer. 1 sent him my book, a page 
being turned down at the reference to a Glasgow patient. Most of these 
books and papers, after the letters are extracted, I put, he said, into the 
waste paper basket, for we are pestered with them. Seeing your book 
and the leaf turned down I put it back and condescended to read it. As 
I read, it grew in interest and I said the next day I will go to Chard and 
see Gillingham at once. As he was approaching the house leaning on 
his two props, I I'an down the steps to meet him, put my hand upon his 
shoulder and said, " Physician, heal thyself." He smiled and said, " I 
am unable to do so ; I am come to you." What do you wish to have 
done 1 You can do as you like with me. The doctor was under treat- 
ment about a week, two instalments were made to flex the feet and raise 
the toes and a support to assist the spine. When first adjusted he could 
walk erect to his hotel without dragging or tripping ihe toes. 
The following is his letter twelve months after his visit : — ' 


Dear Gillingham,— I must apologise for not writing earlier, but the time of the 
year reminds me I was with you last year. I hope you and yours are well. ■ • • ■ 
You will he glad to hear that I have derived great help from the use of the appliances ; 
They have now become a part of myself 

Tours very truly. 


These cases are sometimes very complicated and difficult to deal with. 
In some there is a kind of involuntary persistency to force against the 
pressure employed to put the head right and fix the head. An arrange- 
ment is made and fixed to a spinal apparatus, variously modified to meet 
the case, and similar to spinal arrangement to which the head is fixed, 
as in engraving 27. 

Drop Neck— When the head drops forward it is sustained by a simUar 
support to 27, or by a chin rest fixed to bust of ladies' stays, or a stem 
with re-st for the chin rising from pelvic belt In sitting m a chair or 
bed a swing rest is suspended from the back of same. 


All spinal supports are irksome on being first worn, and should be 
only put on for a few hours a day till used to them. Further, they 
should be seen to and adjusted every few months, especially with young 
patients, as the figure alters. The back should be rubbed every day (or 
often) after removing the support in the lines indicated (engraving dU). 
Any breakage or bending of the instrument should be seen to at once. 
A spine support worn year after year some cases) ^^^^hout being 
adjusted does more harm than good, inasmuch as the patient does not 


Jvri X she t/rned out four or five spine supports, -cely made by 
ffetnt makers-full of complaints about them '-^l T^V^^^^^^^u 11 be 
n^P on lookincr at it, I found it fitted nicely, and was all that couicl oe 
Sre ' do you wish me to do "Make me somethmg 

^tter ' " Wen, madam, to be honest, I cannot do it. What is the 
use of trying if you really cannot be benefitted. 

Patients must excuse me for my straight talk, as they will know 
what to expect from me.— J . Gr. 

Engraving 33 illustrates an arrangement for round shoulders and 
stooping, which is provided with metal plates to press in the shoulders, 
draw back the arms, and expand the chest. The neglect of these cases 
sometimes lead to curvature. The spine chair (see engraving) is equally 
effective in pressing in the shoulders and expanding the chest. See 
article on same. 





Very frequently sufferers, when writing, say I do not see any case like 
mine illustrated in your catologue. To illustrate thousands of different 
cases would take a very large book. By way of helping inquiry I have 
multiplied the illustrations in this edition, so that patients may get a 
better idea of the more general ones and their plan of treatment. 

Illustration 34 is a mechanical arrangement for various forms 
of weakness. and deformity, sometimes adjusted to one leg and not 
unfrequently to both, especially in cases _ of infantile paralysis 
rickets and general weakness, caused by injury or otherwise. The 
variou jointslre acted upon by means of eccentrics locks, or springs 
as the case may require, the mechanism being secured to a pelvic band 
and ad 11 teS^ to the boote. In spinal cases, a spinal support is adjusted 
to the ielvic belt, extending to the arms, so that the -^ole frame - 
clothed with mechanism. These appliances are made to extend between 
Jhe ioinls to allow for growth, aiid should have attention every few 
moJhs? so thatthepatie'nt ma^ get the benefit the instruments are 

"'Cavrnr/rillustrates mechanical arrangement for knock-knee 
sometfmes o^n one knee, but more frequently both. The lateral suppor 
instead of being on both sides, as m engraving 34, is only on the out 



side, secured to the boot and a pelvic band, with a triangular strap at 
the 'knee, thus giving the necessary support to the joint at the same 
time allowing motion. 

37 38 

Engraving 36 illustrates enlargement and weakness of the knee joint. 
Sometimes it is very large and sensitive (commonly called white .swelling, 
or housemaid's knee), and it may be hard or soft, according to the 
nature of the injury, or disease. In some cases the knee is so weakly 
that it will give in any direction and refuse to sustain the weight of the 
body. In other cases it is contracted and the condiles of the thigh-bone 
shifted forward and hanging over the front of tibia, or leg bone. In all 
cases the kind of instrument devised is that illustrated by engraving 37, 
without the rack and key motion, as used in contraction, but in the 
generality of these cases the knee-joint is fixed so as to arrest motion and 
irritation and give a straight leg, or a limb fixed at the angle of the con - 
traction, the weight of body being taken in the thigh socket and trans- 
mitted through the lateral steels and heel of boot. 

Engraving 37 illustrates an instrument for contraction of the knee- 
joint. On each side of the joint is a rack and worm motion and worked 
by a key, so that gradual extension may be kept up. The same or 
similar kind of arrangement is used for the contraction of elbow-joints. 
Where the tendons are very rigid and the contraction is beyond the reach 
of mechanism, a surgical operation may be necessary. In such a case 
the tendons are partly cut through, the other part extended, and the limb 
set in splints, so that a jelly substance forming in the cavity of the cut, 
consolidates and lengthens the tendon. Where the knee is contracted 
and not rigid, the contraction is overcome by springs acting on eccentrics 
from the knee or from time to time overcome by a set-joint, as at the 
back. Engraving 38 illustrates a knee deprived of its natural lock, so that 



it gives backwards from weakness of the flexors of the thigh. The in- 
strument supplied is similar to engraving 37, with lateral stays and lock 
or catcli joint) as in front of engraving. In some cases the knee is set 
or otherwise as required. 

39 40 


so frequent with infants and children, arise from want of lime or earthy 
matter in the bones ; old people, whose bones are brittle, have too much 
of what rickety children are deficient of. The bones being soft give with 
the weight of the child. Mothers should not be anxious to put rickety 
children on their legs too soon, but let them crawl. 

In simple cases children in time grow out of it, without the aid of 
mechanism, as the bones get longer and stiffer. In others the child is 
assisted by light steel supports up the legs, until the bones are sufficiently 
rigid and straight to do without them. Parents naturally get much 
alarmed, but most cases under my care and knowledge have growTi out of 

Engraving 39 illustrates a bowed or rickety leg with lateral support. 
The padded metal splint is secured to a jointed steel in the boot and 
takes its bearing on the inside of the knee and the leg materially helped 
by bands, or broad straps, drawn transversely round the lower limb. 

Engraving 40 illustrates a case where the leg is bowed posteriorally 
forward. In such cases there are two lateral steels, one on each side, 
with a laced stay in front. Force is not employed, only just the 
necessary resistance to help nature, in time the legs will correct them- 



When cases from neglect have become decided and set— that is to say 
the bones having become hardened and with little chance of being 
straightened by mechanism or growth— then the bones are broken, or a 
wedg°e piece taken out and reset. This is only done in cases of necessity. 
Painful as this may seem it causes very little risk or pain. I remember 
the case of a child with both legs and thighs so bad that the limbs were 
interlocked and locomotion rendered impossible. The child was placed 
under choloform, both thighs and legs Avere broken and reset. When 
the bones were fairly set I clothed the child in mechanism to the waist, 
similar to that illustrated by engraving 34, the limbs became straight 
and the child was restored. Without the skill of the operation it must 
have been a cripple for life. This was a patient of Mr. F. R. Cross, 
F.R.C.S., Clifton, who sent for me to assist mechanically. 

Engravings 4] and 42 illustrate deformities of the feet. They arise 
from various causes, sometimes they are congenital, or they may be the 
result of accident, but most frequently are the result of infantile 

No. 41. — Contraction of the tendon achilles. In such cases it is 
nipped at the point, crossed, and then extended. An instrument is 
adjusted to boot as dotted lines. The leverage (by throwing the centre 
forward) extends the tendon. Where the tendon is extended and 
brought down a catch is supplied, in some cases, to the ankle-joint to 
prevent it contracting. When the case is stubborn, and the articulating 
surfaces of the joint deformed, a high-heel boot is supplied, supported 
by a sheath and two lateral stays. No. 42 is the reverse of 41 — rupture 
of the tendon achilles, supported by two lateral stays, secured to boot 
and following dotted lines, with a catch forward to prevent the strain 
on the relaxed tendon and the foot flexing on the leg. No. 43, — Dislo- 


cation of the ankle from partial naralv^i"^ of i„ -j 

44) sets tl>e foot by means of st^^ double ,.a;if f °' (»«'--'"« 

Wwl'' r ^w"^' the fitting of instrument and walW boot 
nl ' % K articulating surfaces of the bones are deformed a'wed.e 
piece of bone is taken out to correct the foot. When it ariles from 
mfantile paralysis the foot is corrected as far as possiWe but the 
paralyzed muscles are never restored-neither the ^surgeon or the 
mechanist being able to restore life, so the patient hasTo wear an 

diffiirrhat''T"T^^ '^^^^ «° stubboin and 

?efu even whp % nor the mechanist can show satisfactory 

esults even when fair progress towards recovery is being made. If 

nstrlr H bedroom or house^vithout the 

mstrument the foot goes over on the ankle, and more harm is done in 
ten minutes than either doctor or mechanist can put right in a month 
Fr ction with the hand or a flesh glove, night and morning, will do 
much for such cases m stimulating vitality. Electricity mf; benefit 
but friction IS preferable Many of the simpler cases may beared by 
friction alone if continually followed-the rubber not only brings up 
~f 't^Kl ^^itality from his own hand This also 

prevents chilblains the limbs being generally cold and subject to these 
attacks in cold weather. 



I would here add that while most cases are benefitted and not a few 
restored, I have had others where, after having been repeatedly operated 
on and continually supplied with modifications in the mechanical 
treatment, stimulated by friction and electricity, all effort has been 
unsuccessful in restoring or even improving the feet ; still the patients 
cannot do without instruments and support. 

45 46 
Engraving 45 illustrates weak ankle and broken down arch of foot, 
the dotted line is the mechanical arrangement as fixed in the boot for its 
support and referred to on another page in an article on boots, shoes, 
lasts and flat feet. 

Engraving 46 represents an instrument for various weaknesses of the 
ankles, feet and legs There are two lateral supports jointed at the 
ankle. In cases of disease of the ankle-joint, or anchylosis, there is no 
joint at the ankle, the supports making it a fixture. In cases of weak 
leg, or ununited fracture, as illustrated in engraving 16, F and 8, the 
upper part is made to extend and take its bearing under the knee and 
heail of tibia, the instrument being supplied with padded collar, thus, 
while the weight of the body is taken off the leg, the sheath is so adjusted 
as to set and keej) the fracture. As in S. Bear's case, referred to in 
page 42, headed Third Series. 


Success in the treatment of children after they have been fitted with 
their appliances, depends very much upon the parents or nurses who 
have to fit them on daily. It not unfrequently happens that children, 
by reason of their afflictions, have been indulged and even spoiled, and 



this mistaken kindness is a species of cruelty, which not only injures the 
temperament of the patient, but makes it unpleasant for all who liave to 
do with the child. Therefore, kindness witli firmness is' necessai-y in 
treating such cases. 

With all surgical appliances there is a certain amount of irk.someness 
and difficulty to be overcome. An adult who has arrived at years of 
discretion, will put up with this and overcome it ; but a child, if in any- 
way indulged, will try to throw ofi" the appliance, and as soon as he com- 
plains, the nurse or mothei' loosens the stx-aps or buckles and away goes 
the benefit. When such cases are brought to me I never care to touch 
them, as they bring no satisfaction to patients, parents, or mechanist. 
It is a waste of money and the appliances are useless This is why I 
sometimes recommend the hospital for children, for whilst they are there 
they are treated kindly — not pampered by nostrums, but they have to do 
what they are told, which is not always the case at home. 

Sometimes it happens that a patient is almost one person's work and 
where there is a long family, or other cares, they do not get the neces- 
'sary attention that their cases need. 

In some hospitals there are wards set apart at so much per week, where 
patients get the best of skill, attention and board. When parents can 
afford this it is the best and wisest course to take. — See hints under the 
heading Regulations, etc. 


47 48 
After the swelling has subsided the best means of bringing about 
close union and preventing the division of the fracture, by the contrac- 
tion of the rectus muscle, which in bad cases leaves a gap, is to place some 
strips of strong plaster up the sides and fiont of the knee, leaving three 
loops over the knee-cap. then securing long strips by the transverse 
bands of plaster. When the plaster has firmly adhered, take a penholder 
or pencil, place in tlie loop and twist until the fracture is closely united, 


tie the coil close to the knee at the three points, then fix the limb m spl nts 
or secure it with a plaster of Paris knee-cap with a flat steel inserted at 
back and slightly curved to shape of leg the bandage not being put on 
tight, but extending six or seven inches above and below the knee 
avoiding pressure round the patella and sensitive part of the knee. 1 
have treated several cases in this way with success. vi -fi. 

When the bandage and plaster is removed the knee is supp bed with 
knee-cap, the front part laced in two sections, thus drawing down the 
rectus muscles, keeping the fracture until such times as the knee-cap 
can be dispensed with. ■, , , i 1,00 

In case where there is imperfect union and the rectus mus^cle has 
sprung up the leg, this being the pulley that brings the knee forward 
and keeps the joint, a spring to supply the rectus muscle is inserted in 
the back of the knee cap to drive the leg forward and allow of suflicient 
motion for ordinary walking, but not permitting the knee to be bent at 

right angles. , , • j 1 

A similar kind of cap is supplied for weak and sprained knees 
without the steel spring at the back and without the two laced sections 
in front Sometimes under sudden strain the lunar cartilage ot the 
knee-ioint may scale ofi" the head of the trbid, when the cartilage 
becomes floating— that is to say the senovial fluid gets under and 
prevents union ; when this is the case the cartilage can be taken 
between the thumb and finger like the edges of a penny-piece and 
moved from side to side. The knee-cap is very eff"ective m keeping and 
helping the knee. Elastic caps are useless in such cases, as they do not 
give the necessary resistance. 

14, Central Meat Market, London, September 10th, 1880. 
Dear Sir,— The knee cap vou supplied me with about five weeks since I have 
found of great assistance to my 'sprained knee, and I can walk any reasonable distance, 
but without, or before I hal it, I could not stand five hours at my business. 

I am, dear sir, yours truly, 



A good socket and good stump, with suitable eye, often defies detec- 
tion. The mistake made with many patients is, they wear the eye too 
long without being enamelled or getting a new one ; the enamel wears 
off in twelve or eighteen months, the rough surface irritates the sensi- 
tive membrane of the socket, and gi-anulation is set up, which some- 
times grows very rapidly, and foi-ces the artificial from the socket. 1 
held an appointment at the West of England Eye Infirmary, at Exeter, 
for two years, and supplied and fitted the eyes to the patients when 
required, and have seen some 



When irritation is set up the eye should be taken out and the socket 
wa.shed with weak alum water. Where patients require eyes they 
should come to have them fitted. I beg to state that I do not take any 



risk by post, either to and from the artist or to and from the patient. 
Eyes may crack with change of temperature, or otherwise break in 
stamping or carriage. 


ISot long since Mr. F. R. Cross, F.R.C.S., of Clifton, directed my 
attention to an interesting case at the Bristol Eye Infirmary ; 1 think 
it was either the first or second case. First I would s;iy that when the 
eye is excised or extracted a portion of the eyeball or capsule is left ; 
this forms the stump on which the artificial eye rests ; with a good 
stump there is a fair amount of motion, when otherwise it is too set. 
At an operation on the excising the eye it was suggested by Dr. Muels 
to enclose in the stump or capsule a small glass ball or marble ; this 
would give roundness to the stump, obviate in a measure the hollow 
sinking, and furnish a good stump for the artificial eye to rest and work 
on. This gives a decided improvement to the features. The patient I 
saw was doing well, and I have since ascertained from Mr. Cross that 
the cases thus treated under his care are progressing successfully. 




Affections of the Feet & Toes, Weak Ankles, Broken-down 
Arch of Feet, Boots, Lasts, and their Construction. 

Many are the afflictions of the feet, but the move general are the 
givin^^ down of its arch. This causes considerable pain and incon- 
venience, inasmuch as the weight of the body comes in a du;ect hne 
through the broken arch instead of taken its bearing against the 
abutnients of the heel, joint, and toe. 

This weakness will sometimes manifest itself m one foot, but more 
frequently in both. It is often caused by over exertion and long and 
continuous standing, so that the tendons, being unequal to the exertion, 
give way, the arch sinks, and the foot elongates. This may come on 
suddenly'in a healthy subject by over exercise, but more frequently it is 
a sign of constitutional weakness. 

The patient, to use a general term, hobbles, and turns his feet out to 
save rising on the pivet, or great toe, as in ordinary walking. These 
cases, when taken in time— in their early stage— can be improved, 
materially helped, and restored; but when once the arch has gone 
down, though it can be materially helped, it is rarely, if ever, restored. 
It has never been, as far as I know, my good fortune to restore one. 
Sulferers must excuse my frank and out-spoken explanation of my cases, 

with their possibilities and difficul- 
ties, as it is my desire to publish a 
book, that will give a clear con- 
49 ception of them, as far as my own' 
experience and observation will allow 
Other mechanists may have difierent 
experiences, and, as the best of us 
are not infallible, they may materially 
difier from mine. 

Illustrations 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, En- 
gravings 49 to 54, explain the former 
observations on weak arch of foot and 
its mode of treatment. 

No. 1 reprpsents the natui'al arch 
and points of bearing, A B C, (kc., the 
line through the centre of arch is that 
of the leg bone, or pillar that supports 
the upper structure. 

No. 2 ill rates the arch of foot 
where broken down, so that the 
weight, instead of being sustained on 
the key stones, is taken in the 
direction of the arrow on to the 
distressed arch, the^heel projects and 
the foot elongates. 








No. 3 gives the form and style of 
boot worn in such cases to relieve the 
waist and help the foot. First, there 
must be a suitable last made, especially 
in confirmed cases, any last will not 
do. Boots purchased ready made and 
constructed on the general plan will 
not suit the feet, but, on the contrary 
cause pain, distort, injure, and thus 
aggravate them. Now, 1 have no 
- objection to supply the last, but I do 
object to make the boots, or get them 
made (especially after the first pair). 
*Why 1 Because I am not a boot- 
maker, J. have gone beyond my last 
and any practical man can make them 
on following the instructions given_ 

The boot, you will observe, is not 
made on a last with a hollow waist, or 
on one with almost a flat waist and 
boat fashion, No 5. (The hollow waist 

pointed toe, as illustration 4, but 

the toe and heel turned up a little- , — - ^ 

last is unnatural, it may be called fashionable For example, in a healthy 
foot when standing bare the hollow is on the inside and it bears nearly the 
whole line on the outside.) This gives what the bootmaker calls spring to 
the last, so that when the foot passes into the boot the toe presses down and 
makes a well cut boot, fit and set properly, removing that slackness from 
the quarter and ankle, experienced in ordinary boots 

Between the inner and outer sole is fixed a spring, D, secured at the 
heel end, to give with pressure and assist the arch. The waist of the 
boot is almost flat, slightly hollowed on the inside, round which the 
innersole is blocked in a half circle, extending just under the ankle giving 
the hollow part support. In addition to this there is an oval or luner 
pad inserted under the waist and the stiffening is shaped to come above 
the ankle, as shewn by dotted line, and extending almost to the ball of 
the great toe, giving long and solid support all along on the inside. The 
.heel of the boot is made long, especially on the inside, and low. 
Nothing is so painful and destructive to a weak arch as a high heel. 
Further, the boots should be laced— not elastic nor buttoned— maae of 
flexible material, not to lace close at first, by so doing the ankle will be 
braced and thus strengthening the ligatures of the feet. When this 
kind of boot faUs to give the needed support, two lateral steels, or one as 
the case requires, are adjusted and further assisted by lateral straps, as 
previously illustrated. Engraving 45. 

No. 4 illustrates an unnatural last with dotted heel (in contradistinc- 
tion to 5 and 6, which are made after the natural shape and true 
anatomy of the human foot). A dotted outline of foot with weak arch 
is given to show the absurdity of wearing high-heeled boots or shoes. 
, *It is said " There is no Boottnnker beyond his Inst." This is not tnie-at any rate 
in my case. 



The weight coming through the waist of boot, the tendency is to invert 
the arch and crush the foot entirely. The moment the foot is in the boot 
the waist goes down, the heel goes back, the toes turn up, the shoe gapes 
loose at the ankle and slops. Yet, if you explain this to some {'isiiion- 
ably dressed ladies they will not see it nor give up wearing higli heels. 
There is the right and proper course to take and you cannot make boots 
to fit the head and feet at the same time. » -d p n 

No. 6 shows the tread of the last and the points of bearing A ±5 0 C, j 
in contradistinction to the last (No. 4) that narrows the tread, nips the | 
joint, and turns the great toe in out of its proper line, while the smaller 
toes, from their cramped position, ride one on the other. 


In cases where the great toe joint is enlarged and is turned m, a 
night instrument is used, consisting of a steel spring, sandled to the 
middle of the foot for drawing out the great toe ; but this is often too 
painful, especially when the articulating surfaces of the joint have 
developed with the deformity. The more simple and effective plan is to 
give width in the boots, and then place a wedge of felt between the 
great and first small toe; this does not interfere with the action of 
walking, but tends gradually to open the toes and bring the great toe 
back to its normal line ; of course the pad must be slightly thickened , 
as the toe improves. The felt can be supplied on application. 


In these cases motion to the toe means constant irritation. To arrest • 
motion, where a sufferer cannot give up walking, a boot is made similar 
to No. 3, with low cap, so that the foot will slide in easily ; and between 
the inner and outer soles is inserted a thin steel sole, to prevent move- 
ment of the joint and prevent walking from heel to toe — but flat, the 
heel being low and broad. 

To follow is an article on weak feet, written before the foregoing 
illustrations were given ; it may, in some measure, be a repetition, but 
will help to elucidate the absurdities of fashion and treatment of the 


Where mechanism is required it is imperative that I should make the first boots to 
ensure a perfect fitting of the instruments, after which the patient's own bootmaker inu* 
make them. The plan adopted is as folloivs : — The bootmaker makes the boot or boots at 
far as the welt, it is then sent to me; I fix the new or old steel and then send \t back, _ 
through the post, to be finished. This is but little trouble to the bootmakei; bcyotta * 
drawing the last and sending it, and it saves risk and inconvetiience. If I were to ma 
boots, or continue to do so, for all my patients I should have to give up surgical mechanxtn*- 
Not only so, but some arc so inconsiderate that should there be a little dissatisfaction . 
them, or should they not suit, they coolly try to return the boots on my hands, 1/'^. 
hate put myself to the inconvenience of getting them made. I cannot be subject to t y 
sort of thing. Let the local bootmaker make the boot, and if he fixes the steels £ff_f_— ;| 
the centres or joints are the same distance from heeV s scam, or r ound the heel, as tn o 
ones. Cork hoots, where no mechanism is required, must be made by a practical boolmaictr,^ 
but I am ready and pleased to give any instructions. 







What is more destructive to tlie anatomy of the human foot than the 
present fashion — straight-bottomed shoes, with low quarters and high 
heels? The natural use of the foot is perverted; the weight of the 
body, instead of coming down on the arch of the foot, through the leg- 
bone, which by nature is constructed to bear the weight, is transmitted 
through the foot to the toes, and the toes are not constructed to hear 
such unnatural pressure and action. The high heel points the toe .so 
that the foot and leg are almost in a line : consequently, the arch of 
the foot is of little service ; and with these beautiful so called shoes the 
ladies of our advanced age wear short dresses, that they may show to 
passers-by this perverted anatomy. When God made man He made 
him perfect, and if an ai'ch was not necessary to the foot He would not 
have given it. and if man had required an extra piece on to his heel 
depend upon it it would have been put there. God never sent His work 
for man to improve it, much less to distort it, neither does He smile at 
the alteration. 

We have spoken of the heel and arch of the foot ; now a word about 
the toes and joints. In these straight, narrow shoes, the joints, instead 
of being full wide and semi-circled on the outside, are compressed and 
narrowed, so that the broad base on which it was intended that man 
should stand has become contracted, and instead of the toes spreading 
and expanding, they have to ride one over the other, tortured with 
corns and bunions. The great toe, which is the pivot on which the 
whole body turns, and helps a man forward in his walk, should be 
nearly straight with the heel ; but the narrow shoe turns the point of 
the great toe out of its course, over to the little ones ; hence there is a 
full joint at the great toe, pressure on which causes a bunion, as well as 
growing-in toe-nails. Not only so, bilt if the toe is turned out of its 
course thus, how can it become the proper pivot on which the body 
must turn? This is not all— see the sprained ankles and broken legs, 
«tc Each foot is said to have three points of bearing— one at the creat 
toe, one at the heel, and one at the outside joint. If the foot were 
turned up, and the dots were placed on the foot and lined from dot to 
dot, they would form a tripod. A thing of three legs can stand, but 
a thing of two cannot ; so by wenring a cramped, straight shoe, the dot 
on the outside joint is compres.sed nearly in a line with the dot at the 
toe and heel, consequently there are but two points to stand on instead 
of three, and the grip we should have upon the ground is sacrificed. 
The broader the base, the firmer the power. If you see a fine tree it 
has a good root, that it may grip the earth and stand the tempest. If 



you build a house you seek a good foundation, but people are wanting 
in common sense about their own foundations. 

Now a word for the cure of cramped feet. Let a man with a well- 
t-oi^led fo t t nd upon a sheet of paper. While standmg thus the 
oe^spread out, the outside joint becomes full and semi-circular the 
n depone and areat toe are almost straight, and m a hne with the hee 
Strike round the foot while standing thus, with a pencil, and you will 
?nc frorthe straightness of the toe and heel, the hollow of the waist 
ox" the'"ide,with'the fullness of the outside jomt tha there is a 
peculiar twist with the foot, and this peculiar and "^^^ura twist should 
be made (with suitable upper leathers) in the last so that the boot 
should fit the foot, instead of the foot being made to fit the boot 1 
have advocated boots made to the anatomy of the foot for years ; but in 
nine cases out of ten the wearer prefers fashion to anatomy. The look 
of the anatomical boot is so opposed to fashion that the wearer generally 
does not like the look of it-it does not suit the eye. When m the 
boot business, out of a large number of customers, I modelled lasts for 
twenty sensible men. I never find any difficulty m fitting a foot, but 
the greatest difficulty I find is putting up with people's nonsense m 
trying to fit their heads. I would add that there is no such benefactor 
to the community at large as a good bootmaker, and I positively affirm 
that there is no tradesman in the world so harassed and badly paid for 
his brains. He mav bestow any amount of labour upon his lasts, and 
if he were to charge for the time taken up about them, beyond the 
ordinary price for his boots, the generality of customers would begrudge 
to pay. Bootmakers cannot Hve on the air any more than others, and 
if they were to become anatomical in.stead of fashionable bootmakers 
the majority of them would have no trade at all. 

Children with a tendency to weak ankles should avoid low shoes, loose 
boots, high heels, and elastic-side boots— should wear good laced boots, 
wide bottoms and soft vamps, good stiff'ening or quarters, broad-seated 
and toppice heels, with close-lacing flexible leg, and the interior on 
Gillingham's principle. The flexible close-fitting " laced-leg " braces the 
ankles, yet allows the free extension and flexion of the foot in walking ; 
and answers to the ligatures that keep the arch of the foot. An 
illustration may be conveyed by the practice resorted to by labouring men 
of wearing a buckle strap round the wrist ; just at this point there is a 
ligature which binds round the cords of the hand and serves as a fulcrum 
on which the cords of the fingers act as so many levers. The artificial 
ligature — the buckle strap — saves the strain on the natural ligature and 
helps to do heavy work. If such is the assistance rendered to a healthy 
member, the effects and advantages of a close-fitting flexible leg to a 
weak ankle over that of a shoe or an eUstic side boot, must be obvious. 





Large numbers of both sexes suffer from ruptures of one form or 
another, and to relieve those so afflicted, different kinds of trusses have 
from time to time been invented. Some profess to cure all kinds of 
rupture by one kind of truss, which is simply ridiculous, while others, 
still more so, profess to cure without a truss of any kind. 

Every truss-maker has faith in his own plan of treatment and thinks 
his truss the best. There are many excellent trusses by different makers 
equally successful in accomplishing similar results and as no rule can be 
laid down the mechanist must exercise his own judgment in dealing with 
his cases. What is most injurious and fatal to success is an indis- 
criminate purchase of trusses. It is most important that it should be 
rightly adjusted and that the spring be the right gauge. In special cases 
the pad may be flat, concave, convex, or otherwise. J .. G. has now had 
20 years' experience in treating rupture and has been most successful 
with a large number of sufferers and has made this branch a special 

Most patients will naturally a.skthe question—" What is a rupture ? 
A rupture is the giving way of the abdominal wall at its weakest point. 
It may occur in various parts of the body, but most frequently m the 



aroin • it is very general, inasmuch as about five out of every ten both 
ml and female, are ruptured somewhere From statistics published 
by the Loudon Truss Society for relief of the poor, it appears that since 
their commencement they have relieved 425,000 sufferers ; nearly 10 000 
men and women were relieved in 1886, and m one year over 600 ch Idien 
under one year of age, and yet there are thousands who neglect them- 
selves and wear no support. Engraving A illustrates various ruptures 
The oval ring 2 is the weak part, and where an ordinary rupture first 
makes its appearance, being where the blood vessels penetrate the wall 
of the abdomen to supply the extremities In cases of sudden strain, 
this wall gives way round the vessels and the intestine forces its way 
through the aperture and lodges at the point X, like an egg, or walnut 
This is called an ordinary, or Inguinal Rupture, and will recede through 
the ring on pressure from the fingers ; could they remain, they would 
sustain it but a properly adjusted pad and spring supplies tneir place. 



B C 

Scrotal Rupture is illustrated at ring 3 m engraving A, and it 
generally devolves from Inguinal Rupture, often being the result of 
neglect or badly fitted lnguinal Trusses. A rupture when it has forced its 
way beyond the spot X through ring 3, down in the scrotum, becomes 
scrotal the intestine falling in folds down the purse in the male and lodging 
in the groin (or, in the opposite sex, forcing its way through the aper- 
ture 4). These ruptures in some cases (and not unfrequently on both 
sides) assume large proportions, as large as a child's, head. No truss can 
possibly control them and they have to be sustained by a suspensory, 
eno-raving (J. On first appearing, before the aperture becomes too large 
the rupture may be sustained by a truss of my own construction intro- 
duced about 15 years ago, and illustrated in engraving B. Here the 
angle of the pad comes well over the arch of the pubis at the point X on 
the pad, to prevent its travelling to this point and descending. Should 
the ring 3 become large, success cannot be promised ; the least shifting 
of the pad by .stepping high or sitting in a low chair, coughing, or sti-ain- 
ing, it slips under the pad instantly, like water behind a hatch. " Th,erefoi'e 
I never promise anything in sucli cases, for to attempt to control is to 
attempt the impossible. Recently, I met with three patients with no less 
than six, seven, and eight trusses eacli, some of them of the most costly 



and elaborate construction, by difiei-ent makers ; every one of them 
failed except in one case, and two had to abandon tliem and use the 
suspensory C. How sufferers are gulled by answering advertisements 
for trusses that will cure every kind of rupture. In some long standing 
cases of Scrotal Rupture where it is large, patients are easier with the 
rupture down and suspended, than when put back. One case before my 
mind is that of a working man with a rupture as large as an infant's 
head. I supplied him with a susjjensory ; on seeing an advertisement of 
a specialist, he paid him a visit, fee one guinea and a cure promised for 
the modest sum of thirty pounds. A cure — impossible without an opera- 
tion ! The risk would be so great that not one surgeon in a thousand 
would attempt it, unless in case of emergency, or strangulation. In 
some cases there are features that will admit of its being reduced, but 
how about all the failures ? Perform a miracle and charge five times as 
much as any practical surgeon would for an ordinary operation and you 
will do a trade. Some persons do not believe in honesty, and with 
others it is the most criminal thing to tell the truth. 



" I have much pleasure in forwarding yoa cheque ; your Suspensory Bandage gives 
me much ease and comfort. The number of trusses I have had all proved useless, and 
they did me more harm than good when I tried to wear them . Yours truly, 

^ , S.A." 


58 59 
Femoral Rupture makes it appearance where the vein entei-s the 
thigh at the aperture, or ring marked 4, and is more frequent by ten to 
one in women as compared with men. It is sustained by a suitable 
curved spring and pad. 

Strangulation or Stoppage.— This occurs when the intestine 
continually forces its way through a small aperture and becomes too 
large to return, especially when inflamed by cold or otherwise (these 
cases illustrate the folly of neglecting to wear a truss). In such cases an 
operation is often necessary and many a valuable life has been thrown 
away from neglect. On the first symptom, the patient should lie on his 
back, tilt the lower part of the back, flex the thigh, also bathe with 
warm flannels, or take a warm bath. If the rupture will not recede, 
send for a medical practitioner. 

Umbilical Rupture occurs at the navel and is sustained by a 
truss, as 1, engraving A, the pad being made concave or convex as the 
case requires. 



Abdominal Weakness. — This is the bearing down in persons 
of full habit or otherwise, generally in women after confinement. In 
such case the patient generally places both hands to support the 
bowel ; this gives relief. The abdominal truss, or properly -fitting 
abdominal belt (as illustrated), is a most effectual support, and should 
be worn by those needing this kind of help. Where there is this 
bearing down, and at the same time an umbilical rupture, a padded plate 
is fixed in the belt opposite the x in front. Where there is a falling 
down of the ani (or rectum) or the uteri, an arrangement suited to the 
case is &xed at 1 and 2 on the understrap, this meets complications that 
are not unfrequent. Where the patient is very stout and there is not 
the necessary grip to sustain the abdomen, it is supported by a brace 
over the shoulder, and in cases of ruptures pads are fixed in the belt at 
the sides. The difficulty with most belts is that when the patient sits 
down they frequently turn up, the tendency being rather to force the 
bowels down than support them. This has mainly to do with their cut 
and fit. These belts should be made specially, and fitted to the. wearer. 
J. G. would here add that when he can get from home he takes his 
sewing machine with him, and cuts, fits and makes upon the spot. 


62 63 64 



Rupture of Ani or Rectum.— This is the falling down of 
the rectum from weakness, and is sustained by a suitable pad and 
spring (A), supported back and front from the waist or by a sliding 
plug and pad B. 

Rupture of the Uteri. — This is very general, and may be caused 
by over-reaching or straining, or be brought on after a premature con- 
finement or hard work. The best appliances for simple cases (and there 
are 50 to 100 difierent forms of appliances for this weakness) is the Globe 
Air Pessaiy and Zwank's Winged Pessary. The former is passed into 
the body and inflated by a small air pump, the rupture resting on a soft 
air cushion well sustained ; the latter passes into the body, and the 
wings of the pessary extend by a screw. I have found these two 
simple forms successful in affording the greatest comfort and relief; 
but the more complicated cases are best treated by a medical 

For the the information of sufi'erers I have gone as far as I can in 
explaining with propriety. This rupture question is a delicate one, but 
nothing is too delicate to treat ichen human suffei-ing is to be relieved 
and valuable lives are to be saved ; and here let me say that numbers 
loose their lives and suffer a life of martyrdom from a sense of mock- 
modesty, and because they will not apply for the needed relief. One 
case out of numbers : this patient had suffered for years, at times lying 
on the floor or lawn to reduce the rupture. " I came to your door, sir," 
she said, " some weeks ago, and went away, having no courage to knock, 
and now I am obliged to come." In ten minutes the rupture was 
replaced and sustained. The patient now enjoys life without risk or 
suffering. Those similarly situated may take the lesson, for there are 
thousands who will not seek help. 

Testimony is not furnished in hernia cases, as large numbers wear 
these appliances whose cases are only known to the mechanist and 


Those in health know comparatively little of the ills to which flesh is 
heir to ; thousands suffer from afl^ictions that their most intimate friends 
know nothing of— they are hidden and quietly borne. Now, not a few 
suffer from stricture. I have on several occasions met persons thus 
sufi'ering, more than once when travelhng and in lavatories at railway 
stations. I tipped a genileman on the shoulder one day and said, 
" Why sufier thus when the means are within reach to relieve you 1 
I gave him the address where to get what he needed. 

Now I do not treat of stricture myself.; this is the work of the 
skilful practitioner; but I can direct a sufferer to the means of 
alleviation ; I feel pleasure in so doing ; and this brings me to an 
invention in which I feel interested. , i. i. r 

Some years ago I called on a medical gentleman ;vho treats of 
stricture; he always was exceedingly kind to me and felt a deep 
interest in my success. He handed me an India-rubber catheter, with 


a mushroom top and a hole behind it. " Thi.s thing fails, and will not 
do its work. Can you suggest anything that can ' be passed into the 
bladder, retain itself, and be withdrawn at pleasure ? " 1 saw what was 
wanted in an instant, and drew with my pencil the arrangement. " I 
can see that is the thing ; I will send for a manufacturer and get it 
made." Some months after I was in Town, and called as usual, when 
the gentleman said, " You remember when you were here I asked 
you for a suggestion 1" " Yes." He went across the room and brought 
the winged catheter. " There is the thing "you suggested ; that has 
been in a man's bladder four months, and, what is most remarkable, 
the man is in his saddle half his time, being a jockey. It will be the 
means of saving many valuable lives, and where I should otherwise get 
a f^ood sum for an operation, a sufferer can now relieve himself for a few 
shillings." You see' this gentleman by this invention, laid the axe at 
the root of a certain section of his own practice, so that the sufferer 
might get the benefit. 

f Mr. Barnard Holt's Self -retained Winged Catheters ; to he had of 
A. G. Baker, 244 and 24.5, High Holborn, London. Ulustrated in 
S. Maw, Son d- Thomsons Catalogue, page 163 ; and in Arnold & Son's 
Catalogue, page 429.^ 


These are very useful when a proper adjustment can be made. 
Some of them are unsatisfactory, not in the make, but in meeting the 
needs of the case. (These things are not returnable.) 


These are not kept in .stock, but made to order and supplied fresh 
from the Manufacturer. 


These are made plain, or with single or double spring heads. Price 
according to quality and finish. In ordering, measure from close under 
the arms to the floor as a guide for length. 


These are not kept in stock, but are supplied fresh to 
measure from the Manufacturers. No goods deteriorate 
so much with keeping as elastic goods and they are much 
better had fresh from the loom 

Price in cotton and silk according to quality, of which 
there are first, second and third. In measuring for knee 
cap or stocking take the circumference at the points marked 
with a tape measure. Measure close and send the same. 
Anything special or extra in .size charged exti'a. 



These machines and batteries vary in price, according to the make 
and finish. Some are more constant and durable than others, but all 
are much the same in producing similar results. They are of great 
value in stimulating nervous energy. A good Electric Machine or 
Galvanic Battery may range in price from four to ten guineas and a 
useful Electro-Machine supplied for two guineas 

Electricity imparted by means of an Electric Apparatus will per- 
meate and reach the parts that no medical rubber can touch. But in 
many cases I believe the human hand to be the best electric machine. 
By judicious rubbing you not only generate electricity, but impart 
vitality, inasmuch as that a good rubbing will do more good than Doctor 
or Mechanist to a weak limb and spine. I often tell my patients if 
they would rub and exercise their limbs they would not require 
mechanical treatment. By stating this I do not under value electrical 
treatment, as it has done marvels in restoring sufferers to health. 








the Surgeon, the Mechanist, or the Patient, for applying Sayre's 
Plaster Paris Bandages, or Cocking's Porous Plaster Splint, 
or for Self Suspension. 

































































The advantages of Gillingham's plan of Suspension. 
When a patient swings by his hands from a horizontal bar, the spine 
and muscles are extended ' naturally, the chest is expanded, and tne 
shoulders are symmetrical. Should the curvature bo compensatory ana 
not of spinal origin, it will be detected instantly in the shortening of one 

^^By securing the pulley-cord, the patient can suspend himself by the; 
handle, or by leaving hold of the handle or cross-bar and drawing tne ■ 



pulley-cord, he can practice self-suspension by the hands and neck. 
Thus the apparatus, at a nominal cost, may be purchased by the patient 
for daily use, or used by the surgeon or mechanist while applying the 
bandage. — Patients should practice suspension daily. 


First —The patient lays hold of the horizontal handle with his hands 
he is then drawn up until the tips of the toes touch the ground 
Second —While suspended the neck-collar and straps are adjusted until 
the spine is comfortably straight, if the patient is weakly yon fat on the 
wristlets, but there is no need of them in ordinary cases, l^<^^b^.^°g ^^"^^^ 
without them. Third. - Test your patient and adjust everything before 
you begin ; the pulley is held and the suspender controlled by a second 
person'while applying the bandage. Patients must not ^^ fl^^fj^ 
swing off the ground, and in cases of ^^g^^^^ ^u^ature ox Pott s 
Disease, a firm grip of the ground with the foot should be allowed, the 
heels sliehtlv lifted to avoid unnecessary strain. i -i i 

TL wontal handle was suggested to J. G. by his own children at 

the round swing (or giant's stride)— See over. 





Important to Schools and Families. 


Mr. Gillingham's Children at the Swing, e^igraved from photograph. , 

The best preventative and cure for slight ciises of lateral curvature, 
and for round shoulders, is a daily and judicious use of the round swing 
constructed on physiological principles — See over 




The round Swing, or Giant's Stride, has been used for many years in 
our Schools as an amusement, but this fact has been lost sight of, that 
a rightly-constructed swing not only combines amusement and exercise, 
but it confers an incalculable boon upon the children by developing the 
muscular strength of the whole body, every part being brought into 
play. This swing expands the chest, giving more room for the vital 
organs to play ; more cubic inches of air are taken in, producing a 
better circulation ; the figure is rendered more symmetrical ; pressure 
is relieved from the spine, so that nervous force is accelerated ; for the 
want of this force, which is impeded by sluggish habits and pressure, 
muscidar traction is set up and the antagonistic muscles pull the spine 
into curvature. 

The great secret in spine treatment is bringing into play the muscles 
that are inactive and setting up a counter force to the contraction. 
Entire rest in lateral curvature, or inactivity in an instrument, is 
injurious, for curvature will go in spite of the best orthopoedic 
Surgeon or Mechanist. When a child uses the swing rightly directed, 
the will — the most powerful of all agents — is brought to play upon the 
muscles. Without exercise the active muscles gain power over the 
inactive, and like a machice only partly in motion the working is on one 
side, or like the carman he skids the wheel to twist his car into a curve. 
The muscles of the human body in a state of healthy activity are 
neutral ; anything destroying the balance sets up contraction and 
curvature. Then let nature do her own work by natural means and it 
is only as we study judicious muscular development that we shall be 
saved from becoming a decrepid and degenerate race and from the many 
ills and diseases to which flesh is heir. People may talk about their vile 
bodies as long as they like ; nevertheless it is God's master-piece, fear- 
fully and wonderfully made, and its education (and not its abuse) is as 
necessary as the education of the mind. 

Most of the round swings are constructed on wrong principles, and 
thus do more harm than good ; they have mostly rings or loops at the 
end of the chain or rope. Thus, with one hand down to the hip, the 
other above, the head continually swinging one way, the muscles are 
unnaturally and unequally developed and tend to curvature. 

J. Gillingham's principle is a horizontal handle, secured to the end of 
a chain, which can be looped up link by link, to meet the height 
required ; upon this principle the muscles of the spine are equally 
extended, and the back rendered symmetrical. To prove its effects, 
strip your child to the hips and let him swing with both hands from 
the top of a door. If he has slight curvature, it will instantly disappear 
while so extended. Prove it for yourselves. 

Now the horizonal bar— simply hanging with the hands— is so 
monotonous that children get tired of it, there being but little exercise, 
simply extension. But with the round swing there is not only extension 
but exercise and pleasure, rvnd the children will work at it constantly, 


and it is this constantly pegging away that will cure, slowly and imper- 
ceptibly it may be, but nevertheless surely. 

Further, when the patient has lateral curvature, two handles may be 
used, and one looped a few inches above the other, that more tension 
may be brought on the muscles requiring it. 

This swing runs upon a steel centre, so that one may fly round the 
swing as easily and freely as if there were more to join. 


Children should not be swung up, but allowed to work themselves up. 
In cases of angular curvature, where there is absorption of the inner 
surface of the vertebra?, the swing should not be used ; the felt or plaster 
jacket, or spine support, with rest on the face and hands, and gentle 
exercise, is best. In cases of concussion of the spine, the swing should 
not be used, but entire rest on the back upon a mattress. In cases of 
effusion of the spine the swing should not be used ; electricity, given by 
a skilful practitioner, is the best thing. Where there is any spinal 
irritation the swing should not be used. 

Children with lateral curvature may use it, and children with round 
shoulders ; children in ordinary health will be sure to use it and delight 
in the exercise. 

J. Gillingham can supply these swings, constructed on his own 
principles (without pole) to Board schools, private schools, families, etc., 
including chains, handles, spindle, head table with swivel hooks and 
ring for top of pole— for four children, at 36s. ; for six persons, two 

Instructions.— Pole, feci long ; 5 feet in ground; to be secured well at bottom with 
cross pieces thai it may not circumscribe ; spindle to allow table to clear top of pole one 
inch. A stving for the nursery can be had by fixing the table to a bolt spindle through a 
beam. Any further information given free of charge. 

Diameter of Pole about 6 or 7 inches at bottom, 5 at top. 

National School, Alnwick, Nouthumdekland, August 25th, 1880. 
Mr. J. Gillingham, Dear Sir, — A year ago I got one of your Giant's Strides, and 
am quite pleased with it. Will you please fend me another with 6 chains for two 
guineas as per advertisement. Also please send bill, and I will send you post office 
order on receipt of goods. Hoping to receive it as good as the other one. 

1 am, dear Sir, yours faithfully, 

T. THOMPSON, Head Moatcr. 



ij) §tx l:aj£,sti)'jj gnpl %tittx^ latent. 



It makes 40 Positions, 500 Graduations, can be used for 50 


The Mechanism by which this Couch is worked is analagous 
to the seven notes and octaves in music-or the seven points in 
architecture— giving many changes. 


71. Position 20. 

72. Position 24. 

73. Position 26. 



74. Position 27. 

The numerous sufierers constantly coming before the inventor, in the 
course of his practice as a Surgical Mechanist, suggested the importance 
of a Couch so constructed that it would comprise, in one article, the 
many positions which patients require in reclining, sitting and lying ; 
yet, at the same time, make a useful piece of furniture for ordinary use. 
This object is accomplished by the " Universal," as it gives 20 more 
positions than any previous couch, combines, in one article, what it took 
six or seven to do previously, and only occupies the space of one. 

This simple and wonderful multum in parvo is the most useful and 
convenient for suffering humanity and for ordinary purposes, ever 
offered to the public. Is o aged person requiring constant rest should be 
without it. In fact, the numerous positions of comfort in ordinary use 
make it a great luxury in any family. For invalids, this couch is 
invaluable, as they can get any position of rest that is needful for their 
individual cases. It is also of great value in the Hospital, the Asylum, 
the Camp, and the Ambulance, where it can be used as a bed, a 
stretcher, a chair, an operating table, or for any other purpose. _ It 
will also be found useful in the studio, or in the surgeon's or dentist's 
receiving i-oom. Can be adapted to a child as well as to an adult. The 
couch admits of universal application. It has been seen by many of the 
leading members of the pi-ofession in town and, on the first testimony, 
there has not been anything yet produced in the form of a couch that 
will equal it in its manifold positions, in its usefulness, simplicity, and 
value. Prospectus, with 34 engravings, sent out with it. They are 
within the reach of a large number of sufferers who cannot afford 
to give 30 or 60 guineas for one. The PATENT COMBINED 
COUCH is manufactured in solid Mahogany and Walnut and supplied 
with folding head rest, moveable table, moveable arms, moveable foot- 
board, and four handles, price 15 guineas. 




82 WmroLE Street, October 1st, 1872. 
The Patent Combined Couch, invented b} Mr. J. Gillinghara, of Chard, is a most 
valuable and useful invention, and deserves every recommendation. 


King's College Hospital. 

BARNARD HOLT, F.R.C.S. , . , -f i 

Senior Surgeon to Westminster Hospital. 

14, Savill Road, October 11th, 1872. 

Bleak House, Wiveliscombe, October 3rd, 1872. 
Dear Sir,— I have great pleasure in stating the Combined Couch I purchased of 
you is most essential to the comfort of invalids, and surpasses any I have seen ol the 
kind. ^ ^ ^ 




Reports on Surgical Appliances, London International Exhibition, 1873 — 
"One of the most interesting objects in this department of the Lxhibition is tJie 
Universal Couch, invented by Mr. Gillingham, of Chard, whose ingenuity m other 
departments of surgical mechanism has long been recognised by leading orthopedists. 
Prior to this invention some half-a-dozen apparatus were required to do so much. JN ow, 
all this is combined in the ' Universal Couch,' which, therefore, well deserves the 
name." — Medical Press and Circular, July 16th. 

Medico-Chirurgical Society Conversazione, Devon and Exeter Hospital, 
May nth, 1874.— "A case of admirably contrived Artificial Limbs combining the 
utmost degree of comfort with an elegant appearance, attracted much attention from 
the medical gentlemen present. These are the works of Mr. J. Gillingham, selt- 
tauKht mechanical genius of Chard. The masterpiece of this gentleman's productions 
is Ms InvaUd Couch, most fitly termed ' The Universal.' "—The Exeter arid Flymouih 

Bath and "West of England Society, Dorchester Meeting, 1872. — " Mr. J. 
Gillingham has recently brought out another invention, his Patent Combined Couch. 
This is an astonishing production and cannot fail to prove a great boon to invahds, 
whilst at the same time it makes a most comfortable lounge and a handsome piece of 
furniture." — The Dorset County Chronicle. 

Bath and West of England Society, Taunton Meeting, Juke 6th, 1870.— 
—Arts Manufactures.— " Nothing in this saloon, various and valuable as was 
everything that had yet appeared, would rival, as evidence of extraordinary genius and 
perseverance, the contents of Mr. J. Gillinghura's case, of Chard. This gentleman, 
yet a young man, and originally a disciple of St. Crispin, has applied himself to the 
repair of the human understanding to an extent seldom, if ever, before achieved by 
any individual starling from liis point of life. He is the inventor of the 'Scapula 
Arm ' and ' Dermatopchera Leg,' manufacturer of artificial limbs and surgico- 
mechanical appliances, including instruments for disease of the spine and hip, club- 
foot, fractures, and ruptures, and artificial eyes. Indeed, only give him any portion 
of the human frame that has life in it and he will add all the rest. You are not left 
in liberty to doubt ; there they all are, the substantial limbs before you ; and it needs 
no assisttince from other people's eyes to discover what skill and beautiful workman- 
ship in steel, wood, and other material has been bestowed in their construction." — 
Westa-n Luily Times. 



Opinions of the Press (continued). 

" In the Arts Department, Mr. J. Gillingham, of Chard, the well-known surgical 
mechanist, exhibits a case of his unrivalled surgical appliances and artificial limbs, 
which has been an object of attraction to thousands of persons, who have audibly 
given expression to their admiration of the beauty of the workmanship, as well as to 
their astonishment at the wonderful skill displayed in the manufacture of the various 
arms, hands, legs, kc."— Western Gazette and Flying Tost. 

DoRCHESTEK MEETING, JuNB Gth, 1872.— Arts MANUFACTURES.— " Thc Combined 
Couch, invented by Mr. Gillingham, will be found of the utmost service to invalids 
and an admirable lounge for ordinary use. There seems no limit to the contrivances 
invented by Mr. Gillingham to pase human suffering."— TAe Western Times. 

" Mr. Gillingham's Couch is a most delicious rest for those in health and in it the 
dolcefar niente can in the utmost perfection be enjoyed."— Dorsci County Express. 

Mbdico-Chirurgical Society Conversazione, Devon and Exeter Hospital, 
Mat 11th, 1874.—" The largest display in the room was that of Mr. J. Gillingham, 
Surgical Mechanist, of Chard. There were no less than 26 specimens of skill in the 
construction of artificial legs, arms, hands, eyes, &c., including his Patent Couch. 
As we said of him years ago, only give him any portion of the human frame that has 
life in it, he will add all the rest."— TAe Western Times. 

International Exhibition, 1874.— Mr. Gillingham shows some interesting speci- 
mens of artificial legs and arms made of leather, and if there is " nothing hke 
leather" these may surpass Nature's own apparatus.- TAe Chemist and Druggist, 
April 15th, 1873. 


The above is a useful car for weakly children, or can be used in cases 
of infantile paralysis when just learning to walk m mechanism or 
artificial limbs. 







Children generally give way to stooping habits, this leads to round 
shoulders and contracted chest. Not unfrequently one shoulder is more 
prominent than the other ; this developes unconsciously from a habit of 
resting on one leg, or sitting or leaning on one side. The prominent 
shoulder is the first sign of a disposition to lateral curvature, as 
illustrated in engravings 30 and 31 on spine affection. When sitting 
in an ordinary chair (as illustrated in engraving 76) the tendency with 
growing and weakly persons is to lean forward and sink on the hips, 
especially after exercise or walking, when the muscles are spent, and the 
wills fails to keep the spine continuously erect. 





S^he Spine Chair is invented for a special purpose, and prevents this 
stooping, and gives the needed help to growing and weakly persons. 
The chair (engraving 77) is set at an angle between the vertical and 
horizontal lines, thus affording perfect rest. Its plain, hard surface 
presses the shoulders in, opens and expands the chest, thus giving more 
breathing room for the lungs, and more play for the organs of the chest. 
One padded is objected to (for diseased spines excepted), so that the 
prominent round shoulder shall not bed in the soft surface. Arms are 
objected to, so that the shoulders shall not be forced up. (The Hammock 
chair is objected to — that is with back and seat extended in one piece of 
carpet or sacking, though used temporarily as a seat. It should be 
avoided by growing children with weak spines, as it rounds the shoulder 
and the whole spine is rounded posteriorally out of its symmetrical 

The Spine Chair was invented by J. Gillingham for his patients 17 
years ago, when it was reviewed and illustrated by the leading journals, 
and pronounced to be the simplest and most effective chair for meeting 
the needs of growing families. It has been recently improved (made to 
fold) and is more portable for travelling, schools, (ire. 

The chair forms a luxurious rest for general use ; for rliildren it has 
a great advantage over the straight or inclined purgatory board, with 
hole for the head, inasmuch as it accomplishes all that is required for 
the spine, shoulders, and head, yet at the same time allows the user to 
sit, rest at ease, and occupy the mind with reading or light needlework. 
No family should be without it 

See engraving on the formation of the spine in lateral curvature 
and the rotation of the vertebra), as twisted by the contracting muscles. 
This deformity is on the increase ; some weak frames have a disposition 
to curvature, but in those where there is no disposition it may be 



imperceptibly, yet gradually, brought on by loose habits-by not sitting 
or lying in the best attitude after play, exercise, or work so that the 
exhausted and relaxed muscles may gain their natural tension m a state 
of rest Example -A child tired and exhausted by play comes m, lies 
or sits in any attitude, careless ; the muscles, in taking advantage of 
the rest do not regain their neutralised tension, hence a growing 
deformity; in a state of health all the muscles of the body are ma 
state of neutrality or rest. Anything that destroys the balance leads to 

mischief. . p , i • .-l • • 

Gillintrham's Improved Spine Chair is manufactured m three sizes, m 
stained and polished deal and solid polished mahogany. No. 1 size, 
30in. back, for children up to ten and eleven years of age, lis. bd. 
No 2, 33in. back, suited to girls, youths, or adults, 18s. 6d. ^o. 3, 
37in. back, suited for tall persons and extra long spmes, 19s. 6d. In 
poHshed mahogany-No. 1, 24s. 6d. ; No. 2, 26s. 6d. ; No. 3, 27s. 6d. 

To be had only of the Inventor. All Orders must be accompanied 

with Cheque or P.0.0. 



We live in an artificial age — artificial legs, arms, hands, spines, ears, 
noses, eyes, and the not less essential teeth, the latter are more generally 
worn than any other. It is a privilege to be blessed with sound teeth, 
but when they are defective or deficient there is no greater boon than a 
good set of artificials, especially when the mouth has been manipulated 
by a good operator. 

I was myself a martyr to toothache for years. On one of my visiting 
days at Taunton I called on Mr. A. Stringfellow, dentist. East Reach. 
I asked him if he would say what he could do for me. At a look at my 
teeth he said, to make satisfactory work you must have them all cleared 
out. This for the moment was a poser. After the day's business was 
over I paid him a second visit, and said I have decided the matter, and, 
sitting down in the operating chair, asked him to begin at once. Will 
you have gas? No. The operator set to woi-k by first tucking the 
instrument up his sleeve — some are afraid of cold steel — you need not 
do that, the matter is decided. How many will you have out at first ? 
Go on till I tell you to stop. The operator began in a business-like 
manner, and extracted nine. Now, said he, I shall stop. In a fortnight 
I paid a second visit, and as many more were extracted straight off, but 
one being left ; ultimately that one shared the same fate as the rest. In 
due time the mouth was modelled and a new set supplied. At first they 
were trying — I could only keep them in at short intervals ; but this 
gradually wore off". There are no springs, the fit and workmanship being 
perfect. They have now been in use four years, and, with an occasional 
rub up, they are as bright and beautiful as the first day they were fitted. 

A lady seeing mine said she should like a similar set, but dreaded the 
thought of extraction, and wondered at my sitting to have so many 
drawn at once, One day Mr. Stringfellow called ; I was present. Now 
is the time I said— don't think it over, but have it done at once. We 
prevailed on her to sit and have out seven (without gas or spray). In 
about an hour Mr. Stringfellow came back. Now I said you have 
decided on this matter, and if you feel equal to it, you had better sit 
again and not put it off a fortnight. Six more will complete the work. 
This she did and six more were extracted. She marvelled at my havmg 
out nine, but she herself had out thirteen. See what may be done by 
a little tact, firmness and encouragement. I need hardly •■^Y this 
patient's case was equally successful. During the extractions in both 
cases there was not a single slip of the forceps or breakage, neither was 
their any distortion of the mouth and gums. Therefore as an operator 
and mechanician • I can confidently recommend Mr. Stringfellow. As I 
am now publishing my new book I felt he was entitled to a place in it. 
I have inserted this unsolicited and without his knowledge. 


Manufacturers now-a-day are at a loss to know what to do to sell their 
wares they write on all kinds of subjects sometimes even quoting trom 
the poets. Therefore, I do not see why, to add to the interest of my 



new book, I should not relate a curious incident in my own line of 

^Xt lone, since there were a series of Ambulance Lectures delivered 
in this town (Chard). One evening was devoted to injuries of the eyes, 
ears and They were delivered by a professional gentleman from 
St John's Ambulance Association. During the lecture he said one o 
the most difficult things to deal with was substances m the ear, and 
after eivin^r the effects of insects, stones, buttons, peas, &c., he hi^siiecl 
UD bv savin<- the most difficult thing to extract was a horse-bean. There 
were some cases on record, but in none had the beans been extracted 
It had been considered impossible to do so without serious injury. At 
a pause in the lecture I stood up and said, pray excuse me Mr. Lecturer, 
I have performed that operation myself at Chard. Later on 1 was 

asked to explain how, and by what means. A youth named H was 

induced to play the conjuring trick of putting a bean m the ear and 
taking it from the mouth. After putting in the bean he could not get 
it out and the more his friends tried to extract it the further they 
forced' it into the head. The bean was there some consideraole time, 
until at last medical aid ^vas sought, many things were tried, but to no 
purpose and what with probing and moisture to lubricate the ear it 
became painful, the bean being more firmly fixed than ever. The bean 
be<-an to .swell and was completely capsuled in. Further medical advice 
wa°s called in, but to no purpose. The bean was so fixed that it was 
impossible to place an instrument or a snare of a fine loop of wire round. 
I was asked to come and see the youth, but declined as I considered it a 
want of good taste to meddle with any gentlemen's patient without his 
knowledge, but they came a second time and prevailed upon me. As I 
knew the youth and the mother, I thought there would be no harm m 
seeincr him. On entering the room I saw a number of surgical instru- 
ments lying on the table. I extended the aperture of the ear and 
looked in. Just the eye of the bean being visible. I no sooner dis- 
covered the bean, than I saw instantly how to extract it. The mother 
entreated me to do so. At first 1 declined as the law will not allow of 
an operation being performed except by a medical man under a diploma. 
Would I try, they would say nothing about it if I failed. I went to a 
watchmaker near and secured a long thin drill about the size of a fine 
stocking needle. I then fixed the boy's head so that the light would fall 
on the bean, with a request that he was not to move, but when the drill 
was nearly through, before it touched the drum of the ear he would feel 
it ; then he was to speak. The of drilling was very slow, any 
force would have resulted in serious mischief. After a few minutes he 
cried out that he felt the drill coming, it was against the rind of the 
bean, but not through. A few slight turns Avithout pressure and the 
drill was taken out. The boy could hear di.stinctly through the pin hole. 
(It seemed wonderful that distinct sounds could be heard through such 
a .small aperture). I now drilled several holes round the central one. 
I then broke them one into the other, and with a small scoop began to 
hollow out the bean, when sufficiently hollowed I pu.shed the ends of the 
forceps up between the membrane and the bean and doubled or broke it 
in. I then placed one end of the forceps in.side the bean and the other 
out and extracted it without pain or injuiy. 



At my next visit to London I explained my mode of exti-acting the bean 
to B. Holt, Esq., F.R.C.S., Senior Surgeon to Westminster Hospital. 
On my second visit, he said, 1 explained your mode of extracting the bean 
to Professor at the College of Surgeons. Let me tell you, he con- 
sidered it exceedingly skilful. So that I may take to myself the credit of 
adding something to operative surgery. 



Original Inventions first come by intuition, then they have to be 
worked out and matured. The possibility of the blind seeing was 
suggested to me by the experiences and the experiments I made on a 
sufFerer— Mrs. Croad, of 1, CoUingwood Road, Redland, Bristol— late 
patient of Dr. Maclean, Swindon, and at present a patient of Di . Davey 
and Dr. Andrews, Clifton. Mrs. C, at the time of my first visit, was 
blind, deaf, dumb, jaw-locked and paralysed in both her legs and her 
left arm. Her mode of sustenance was by suction, of communication 
by writing on a slate, and of receiving a message by writing with the 
finger on' her face. By my visits and experiments* with a watch, 
and from her experience of hearing through her right foot, I 
discovered the possibility of hearing with the " Audiphone," invented 
by Mr. Rhodes, of Chicago, from any set of nerves in the body. She 
now hears with the " Audiphone " nicely and speaks and knits with a 
simple appliance. The sister-nerves of the body become the servants of 
the internal auditory nerve, apart from the external ear. Mrs. C. has 
also the power of describing pictures, photographs and colours when 
blindfolded in a dark room ; she was thus tested, though blind, that 
there might be no chance of imposition. (See test by Dr. Davey .^^ of 
Clifton, in a lecture on the " Transference of the Special Senses." *) 
Mrs. C says that when the prints, photographs, or colours are touched, 
they come to her like a flash of light. 

+ Now, in my experiments with an electric battery, previous to my 
knowing Mrs. C, I have placed one pole on the medium-nerve of the 
arm, and the other on the medium-nerve of the forehead, and streams 
of light cross the vision (with better efiect when blindfolded in a dark 
room). Why is this ] Because the optic nerve is the medium for light, 
just as the auditory nerve is the medium for sound : each nerve of the 

•Laura Bridgman, the blind, deaf and dumb lady, of Boston (bUnd from infancy), 
'"s^o'^^'^slJ^vicfofll'lt" compiled by J. G. Westlake. Published by W. Maclc, 

- 'Serc^ncl'of Special Senses," by J. G. Davey, M.D. Published by Balliere 
& Co Kine William Street, Strand. . , .•. j- 

+ In testinK Mrs. Croad with the electric battery and placing one pole on tie medium- 
nerve of the arm, and the other pole on the medium-nerve of tie forehead, she said 
that she saw a bright light, like the sun bursting from behind a cloud. 


senses has its particular function • now, there is no light when the poles 
are placed elsewhere, it is only when tlie sister-nerves becomes connected 
with the optic nerve. Now, my belief is that it will prove to be possible 
for the blind to see when telephotography is developed— that is the 
power of transmitting scenes by wire, by means of an electrical and 
optical instrument combined. 

The nervous system being the most perfect electrical machine, scenes 
may be transmitted through the optic nerve to the mind when the 
natural visual organ has been destroyed, if the optic nerve be perfect 
I laid these facts before an electrician at the Electrical Exhibition 
(Crystal Palace), to which he replied, " Where did you get that idea ? " 
I said it was original and that it came to me intuitively. " Let me tell 
you," he said, " you are on a grand track, I have heard of no idea so 
advanced ; but let me tell you that Reichenbach followed on the same 
path twenty years ago and was harshly treated by his brother scientists." 
I was then shown his work, and extracts were read to me in which it 
was stated that persons blindfolded, under certain magnetic conditions, 
could see what others could not • they could see streams of light 
issuing from human hands and various bodies — metal wood, &c., which 
were set forth in various lithographed drawings. This was confirmatory 
of what I had previously written in a series of articles on Mrs. Croad's 
case, and those articles were written without any knowledge of these 

The time is not far distant when science will devise means by which 
the blind may see without the natural visual organ. When Dr. 
Richardson, some years ago, stated that the time was coming when men 
would walk the bed of the ocean as on land, he was laughed at ; not 
long after Fleuss, the diver, invented a means whereby he could get out ' 
of a boat and walk the bed of the ocean for hours, without air pump, 
or our present diving apparatus — there is nothing impossible. 

This article was lately read over to Mr. Alsepti (the well-known 
Professor of Music), Exeter, who has been blind for forty-five years, 
having lost his sight when only three months old ; Stringfellow's pocket 
battery was tried upon him with this result : " I see glorious light, such 
as I have never seen before." He also stated that the light with dark 
objects continued to flash before his vision for some time after the 
battery was supplied. 

At the time I was interested in the above case, I was writing a series 
of articles on Psychology and the Lost Senses. These articles were read 
by a well-known Professor in London, Dr. G. H. On one of my visits 
to him, he said I have a special commission for you from a gentleman 
" If you can perfect the apparatus to enable the blind to see, he is pre- 
pared to give you £10,000, it is a genuine offer and worth trying. To 
this offer I could only make this reply : " I am only the forerunner and 
have just struck the key-note by way of opening up its possibilities. To 
my mind it is more than probable, as science advances ; but it must be 
left for others to work out and perfect. An intuitive mind can foresee 
the end, but not the exact process by which it is to be arrived at. 



About twelve months after I cut the following from the " Christian 
Age " :— 

Good News for the Blind.— It is announced that Dr. Emile Martin, of Paris, 
has invented an apparatus with which it will be possible to enable the blind to see. 
The mechanism, which is of platinum, can, it is said, be affixed without pain, so as to 
excite iu the optic nerve the sensation of light and the power of vision. So high is the 
opinion, the Paris Academy of Medicine has formed, primd facie, of Dr. Martin's 
invention, that a committee of its members are reported to be now engaged in practically 
testing its merits. The result of their examination is awaited with the deepest 

I then forwarded the foregoing article, without the note, to the 
Secretary of the Paris Academy of Medicine. I received a reply that 
my communication had been forwarded to Dr. Emile Martin. What 
the results of further progress in this direction may be I cannot say, 
but light is dawning. 

My imagination led me so far in the matter that I drew a sketch of 
a blind subject with a battery in a side pocket and an optical and elec- 
tric arrangement resting on the medium-nerve of the forehead (like a 
field glass looking at the surrounding scenery). 

This idea was caught up and engraved as a frontispiece on an American 
(Chicago) monthly, "The Deaf Man's Friend," March, 1883. 

Science will yet perfect an instrument and the tedious process of 
teaching the blind will be superseded. This assertion is not more 
erroneous than Calvin's, who was called the " Frog's Dancing Master, 
yet his discovery now girdles the world. Our cities are become like a 
spider's webb and its many wires from one centre make us as if present 
in all parts of the world almost at one and the same moment of time, so 
that in speech and thought, time, space and matter, are, m a sense, 




is fnx Sai^slg'.^ Ifagal gette iatntt. 

Bronze Medal awarded at the Manchester Exhibition, 1880— 
the Highest Award for Gas Heating Apparatus. 





&c., &c. 
&c., &c. 

Invented by J. Gillingham in contriving apparatus for moulding surgical splints &c. 
GilUngham' s Patent Radiator to be. had of all Ironmongers. 



Victoria Street Chapel, Taunton, September 14th, 1880. 

Sir, — May I sug- 
gest to those trustees 
who are thinking 
about this matter in 
view of the approach- 
ing winter that they 

communicate with . 

Mr. Gillingham, of 
Chard, Somerset. 
His apparatus, which 
is attracting much 

attention just now, is 
the most satisfactory 
thing for heating, 
small chapels especi- 
ally, which 1 have met 
with, it is scientific, 
cheap, wholesome, 
simple, and clean. I 
write in the spiiit of 
selfishness, inasmuch 
Mr. Gillingham 

79 as 
(may he have his reward) has invented a heating apparatus which does its work and 
does not poison the preacher . I fiic, Sir, yours, 


Explanation.— No air is allowed to ascend into the receiver, except 
that which is heated by the oxygen during perfect combustion. The 
heat, having by an inevitable law ascended, is kept aloft by the pressure 
of the atmosphere, where it accumulates in cyhnders or receivers, the 
capacity and diameter of which is suited to the power of the burners. 
As the heat increases in intensity mechanical action is set up and we 
get heat by vibration. 



The heat is aUowed to ascend from the burner into the fii'st compart- 
ment through an aperture in the bottom of the Dresser where it strikes 
upon an inner bottom or E^diator slotted round the edge ; the heat is 
s^ttered over the Radiator, ascends through the slots into t^e second 
compartment and gives uniformity of heat to the top of the dresse^ 
When it has ascended it will not come down but wiU heat the top o 
the Dresser to any temperature, according to the P^^^^^l Jj^^!.^™ 
(or number of burners" used in the cases of Long Dressers . The 
Toduct of combustion, being heavier than the ^^,7" 
the legs of the standards or out of the same aperture through which 
the heat is supplied. 



An ordinary Duplex Oil Lamp or Argand Gas burner is sufficient for 
general purposes, and will heat an ordinary sized room. Size of Dresser 
for burners (as in engraving), 3 feet long and 1 foot wide, and about 
7 inches deep. Can be made any size or of any metal. 

For Photographers.— It will keep your dark room at the desired temperature for 
chemicals, dry plates, sensitised paper, warm dishes of water for tonmg purposes (and 
heat a vessel with hot water arrangement, if necessary). The lamp and burner is pro- 
vided with metal chimney with aperture for ruby or coloured glass. 

For Moulders.— The wax or plastic material may be kneaded like dough on the 
dresser and the desired temperature constantly kept up as required. 

For Chemists and Botanists.— For drying herbs, flowers, and other purposes. 

For Cabinet Makers.— For veneering, heating wood surfaces to be glued or 
cemented, &c. 

For Artists, &c.— For Artificial "Workers of every description. 
For Florists. — For forcing plants and for window gardening. 

Price of Hot Dresser in galvanized iron, 3 feet long by 1 foot wide 
Duplex metal Lamp Chimney, with coloured glass apertirre for \ 
Photographers . . . . . . . .... . . j 

Argand Gas Burners on Stand, with metal chimney ditto 

£2 2s. Od. 
£0 lis. 6d. 
£0 88. 6d. 



This Radiator is for softening the temperature and giving uniformity 
of heat throughout the cylinder heated by oil or gas (from the centre 
or from one end). It is made on the principle of the Cornish boiler — 
a tube within a tube. This Radiator, made in several designs, is boiler 
and furnace in one, so that the water jacket is heated the whole length 
of the tube. The cistern fixed on the centre (or end) serves as the 
supply, the over-flow, and the vapour trough. GiUingham's Patent 
comprises eighteen other arrangements. 


Ilminsteu, August, 1881. 
Sir, — I have now proved your Heat Radiator two severe winters and I am more 
satisfied than ever in stating that (if the lamps are rightly managed) it is-the most use- 
ful invention for small conservatories. I have lost no plants. The house has been well 
supplied with flowers, taken from the conservatory tlirough the severe weather. The 
fruit trees under the influence of the lamps and Radiators have kept remarkably healthy 



and are abundantly supplied with fruit ; in fact I am a month earlier this year, 
attribute it to the low uniform temperature during winter. 

I am, yours respectfully, 


Gardener lo J. W. Shepherd, Exq. 

6, Newton Tehuace, Glasgow. 

Gas Radiator is doing very well, it answers its purpose and is much admired by my 

From Dr. CASSELS. 

Flan Street, Liskeard, January 8th, 1880. 

I was on the point of writing to you to express my great satisfaction with your Heat 
Generator, when I received your post-card. I cannot speak too highly of it for green- 
house heating. It is simply perfect and after the experience I had at the beginning of 
the winter with stoves, I must say your Heat Generator is by far the best. The pianls 
always seem to me to dislike the heat of the stoves and they have much improved since 
I had the Generator. 

Believe me, yours truly, 


AvLwoou, ToRUXJAY, September 1 3th, 1881. 

I have great pleasure in testifying to the excellence of your Heat Generator for 
greenhouses, &c., being simple in construction, economical, and most effective. "When 
my new greenhouse is completed, I shall get you to supply me with a somewhat larger 
one than the last. 

Yours truly, 





For consuming its own smoke, and preventing unnecessary waste 

of heat up the cl^imney. 

This grate was invented at the 
time of the Smoke Abatement 
Exhibition, London, 1881-2, but 
not completed in time to exhibit. 
In all the smoke consuming 
grates at this exhibition, the exit 
into the chimney was immediately 
from undei' the bottom or sides 
of the grate. There was no dip 
below the fire bars to store the 
heat and sepai-ate it from the 
product, and no suction chamber 
at a depth below the bottom of 
the grate to induce the direct 
down current : without this there 
must be gi-eat waste of heat up 
the chimney, and less pei'fect 
combustion and analysis. 

The engraving is a side section, 
showing the action of the grate. 
J is a suction chamber which 
extends 18 inches or two feet 
below the bottom of the gi-ate. 
The fire is lit in the ordinary 
way with open register, and when 
the air in chamber J is heated it 
ascends into the main flue. The 
i-egister is then closed, iilso the 
store chamber, F, is rendered air- 
tight. Nature abhors a vacuum, 
and there is no way of filling the 
exhaust chamber, j, but through 
the fire. The air rushes down through fire to fill vacuum, thus supplying 
needed oxygen to overcome the fuel, and act as nature's bellows (without 
a bellows or a door to induce a current). Further, it is only air that is 
exhausted in the chamber, j, and it is only air that is I'equired to fill it. 
Thus, as the disengaged niti'ogen is rushing down to fiU the exhausted 
space, the heat, being so much lighter than the current, stops in the 



bars and store chamber, separation of heat from product takes place— 
the heat increases to such an intensity that cinders burn with rapidity 
and cHnk as in a furnace. The hottest place is below the bottom of the 
grate, where ib should be. Eound the back and sides of the grate Ls a 
fire brick waistco£it, A, with annular space leading into store chamber 
beneath, the surface smoke and gases are sucked down, and in rolling 
over the red hot plates are consumed, also the fire brick plate, B, under 
bottom nips the gas and smoke in passing and consumes them, E is a 
grated chamber supplying the place of hearth stone, for letting up 
radiant heat. By regulating the damper, and opening the register, it 
can be turned into an ordinary fire, or slow combustion grate ; when m 
action with live fuel, the flames ^^^ll go down like a dart 18 inches 
below the bottom of the grate. Only the true smoke escapes— watery 
vapour and carbonic acid gas, &c., the unconsumed hydrogen and carbon 
which poison our cities and blacken the face of nature are turned into 
liaht and heat and stored for use. I have abandoned the patent : I 
could not stand the expense, and after treatment received at the 
exhibition (see trials of an inventor) I did not send it to Manchester. 

This Exhibition represented the brain of the nation. It was a failure 
in its management, and left the problem unsolved. 


Town Mills, Chakd, Feb. 7, 1882. 

Sir -I have much pleasure in congratulating you on the success you have achieved 
in your Patent Improvement in open Fire Grates, which exceeds anythmg coming 
under my notice during nearly fifty years' experience m settmg steam boilers and other 
furnaces. , • i j 

The only difficulty I can see is the overheating of the fire bars, which may be obviated 
by sulstUutiig holW bars for air passages, when I have no hesitation W that 
Se principle could be advantageously appUed to either open grates orfumaces wi h Ae 
saviSrof 50 per cent, of heat and fuel over that of any other arrangement withm my 

I am, Sir, 

Yours respectfully, 







An engi-aving in the Illustrated News of the burning of the great 
American Hotel, where so many lost their Hves, induced the Inventor 
to work out this Escape. 


This >^mall portable Escape is worked by wonn and Avheel and with 
governing motion. A reel 5in. by Sin. will hold 150 feet of copper coil 
of such strength that at a length of 100 feet it will the strain of 
three men. The centrifugal governing motion gives an adjustable 
speed to the machine, running the same speed with a boy or man. 
With ordinary pressure on the govei-ning wheel the machine is brought 
to a stand at any point in the descent, when the machine makk be locked 
and both hands liberated. The Escape is buckled round thelvaist and 
the spring liook at end of lino secui'ed to a bedstead or any secure place. 
In winding the coil it is thrown out of gear. The Escape .can be used 
vice versa — secured from above and the spring hook caught in a belt 
secured round the waist. The mechanical arrangement will work 



effectually without been touched, and when wound up_ is ready for the 
use of a second descent, but is really more adapted fqj- individual use. I 
introduced it to the Captain of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade, who said 
it was more adapted for private use, as their men were trained to use 
ropes without these machines. It was then offered as a present to a 
fire escape maker on just paying the expense of patent. It was not 
accepted. So the patent was dropped, and it is now open for anyone to 
make. So much for inventions. The success of the Escape wiU be 
better shewn by the follomng report of experiments made to test its 
value ; — 

The announcement that on Saturday afternoon Mr. GnHngham would test the merits 
of his fire escape hy venturing a descent from the tower of Chard Church, attracted a 
large crowd of spectators to the neighbourhood of the Church T^he height of the to^ er 
18 nearly 60 feet-a height sufficiently formidable, when reahsed from the top of the 
tower, to occasion the somewhat uncomfortable sensations of shrinking and giddiness 
which Mr. Gillingham confessed to have experienced at first and which no_ doubt, were 
shared by some of the many onlookers. These sensations were soon dissipated as the 
descent ias actually commenced and soon effected by Mr Gillingham -^thout any 
oSer hindrance than the aiTanged stoppages in the front of the clock, when a photo- 
eraph was taken. The machine was then drawn up and soon returned with Mr. F. 
Woodland (apupUof Mr. GiUingham's) who also pulled up at 
purpose. A third descent was made by Mr. Gillingham s machinist, E. White 
Sying only about 30 seconds. A projecting gable was used m each of these cases 
L order that the machine may escape contact ^Tith theabutments a?|^°ther projections 
Sit to show that it was available in the absence of any such fanhty, White fixed the 
cab e over the cock tower, securing the belt a little lower down lus spine ; he then 
came do^, steering his course with his feet, at a rapid rate to the church roof where 
he^inbuckledhisbelt, ran along the roof, and in a few seconds again attached the 
machiiie for the rest of the journey, which he quickly and easily accomphshed. 

On Monday, 5 p.m., a still larger number assembled to witness a repetition of the 
experimeTover a^ar'apet of the Wilts and Dorset Bank, being the highest tmldmg m 
?he town. The first descent was over the parapet from >he atUc window ; the spring 
hcJk aUhe end of the cable was secured to the beam of the roof an ^^^T^^* w^^f^^^ 
Sown over the coping and cornice to prevent its bemg injured by fnction "g^^st tbe 
SenTngles of the Itone. In spite of the awkwardness of the P^^^^t^^o get over thr^gh 
the cornice projecting so far over the building, White quickly started, and after stop 

factured especially for the purpose by Mr. ^^Jf ' J^^^VtEesen™ 

White then wound himself up to the first storey, ''^^^^^'.^^^JJ^.^t'T^ then made 

incomplete condition of the machine, was a 3^°^ .process. A jnt^w^ t^^^^^ 

by Mr. Gillingham, who, in his rapid progress, freed his ^^^^^^.^^^^^^ the 

who through faintncss, or some other cause, may ^l^^^^^^^^ by 

machine, would yet be quite sa e when once l^.^^^iP^^; J^^^^^^^^ 

Mr. F. Woodland and with equal satisfaction. in danger 

were wondering how the machine could be put into po~n ot any ^ 

from fire, intimates that this could be easily effected by attechin^ 

driving it through thi^indow of the room ^^^^Jf^^^be^so constructed as to wind or 

He further states that when complete the "^achine wiU be so ''OJ^sxrnc 

to be wound up more effectually for the next deX^,^"ouVcLws tlat seize firmly 
be attached a fly grapple which oV'^^f^^Jb l^or Ivone 'rwin^^^ the top 

on the first thing near and thus make it possible for anyone to win 



storey of a house, or the top of a fort as the case may be. Travellers frequenting high 
hotels are supposed to carry the small machine in their travelling trunk with them, 
hotel-keepers and warehousemen are supposed always to keep them suspended with the 
simple instructions for use. We congratulate Mr. Gillingham on his having thus far 
succeeded and fully satisfied the expectations he had previously raised. 

At the Pariah Chmxh on Sunday morning, the vicar (the Rev. Preh. BuUer) referred 
to Mr. Gillingham's latest invention. Taking for his text the words " Escape for thy 
life," Genesis xix., 17, the rev. gentleman, after refemng to lire as the most valuable 
of servants, said it was also the most cruel and tyrannical of masters ; few things were 
more terrible and few things appealed more powerfully to human sympathy than did a 
burning house, whilst few positions could be conceived more agonising than that of a 
human being in the upper stories of a house from which the ordinary means of egress 
had been cut off by fire. The natural instinct is to go to the window and there is an 
overpowering desire to reach the ground beneath ; the fire is behind, and the yawning 
depth below. How many, as we well know, have taken the fatal leap rather than be 
food for the hungry flames. He would say that if any man can devise a safe and easy 
means of escape from such a position of peril and agony, he is a benefactor of the 
human race and that one of our townsmen was likely to have that honour was clearly 
demonstrated to us by the very remarkable experiments which took place from the old 
grey tower on the previous afternoon before so many spectators. With regard to this 
invention, he would only say— May God bless it for the preservation of many precious 
lives. The vicar then made an earnest appeal to his congregation making a practical 
application of the text, pointing out to them the means of escape from the wrath of 

The public Press for years hccs coyistaiitly suggested various provisions 
and means of escajoe from fire, with little or no practical result. The 
Graphic of May 3rd, 1884, commenting on the loss of life by fire at the 
Old Bailey, suggests, as many contemporaries have done before, that a 
knotted rope loith hook be kept under the bed, or better still, a rojje ladder. 
Let me say that not one in five hund^'ed would come down a knotted rope, 
or a rope ladder, unless he loere a trained fireman, a sailor, or a gymnast, 
and not one female in a thousand would attempt it. As an experiment it 
is worth trying ; get a few ropes and test it for afeiofeet and you will 
find yourself thoroughly beaten. 

Gillingham's invention supplies a long-felt need, as the illustrations will 
prove and would be equally available as a means of escape from the top of 
St, PavJJa as from a house. 





Nothing is more conducive to health than a good field game, especially 
when it is made recreative and enjoyable. With a view to add a new 
feature, I have introduced the LofFel or Ladle and for which I appHed 
for provisional protection, but did not carry out the patent, as I could 
get no house in the trade to take it up. Here is the difiiculty in intro- 
ducing a new thing. Manufacturers are afraid that it will interfere 
with the sale of games in practice. A report from the local press with 
illustrations will give a fair description of one of the many games to 
which the Lofi"el can be applied and of which there are seven modifica- 
tions in the drawings of the specification. 

-TyLadies and gentlemen can play at the lighter games and indoor ones 
may be developed with a little tact and planning. 

Among the games was one introduced by Mr. Gillingham, which was entered into 
with great zest, and proved to be as enjoyable as it was novel. It was one of the 
phases of which Mr. GilUngham's new game of " Loffel," is possible on smooth Imed 
ground, promises to be a great acquisition. It is necessary that a proper pitch should 
be provided, with lined triangle for tripo, and divisions similar to those of a tennis 
court. There are three round signals, fixed as wickets at the angles of the triangle ; 
two sides are formed as in cricket. The ball (soft 4-inch, made for the game) is kdled 
or loffed at the signals, which are defended with the back of the loffel ; should the 
signal be hit, it turns over on a pivot, which means out, or those in may be lotied out 
by striking either of the signals while running for the score. Those fielding are each 
provided with a ladle, or loffel, and try to cup the strikers out at the first bound of the 
ball The runs are scored from angle to angle, as in cricket, as there are three in, one 
round makes three points. The game admits of great variety. The ball is not touched 
with the hand in any part of the game, but ladled, and can be thrown, as in a sling, 
to along distance.' We understand that the inventor claims for this game a three- 
fold advantage over the bat and tennis racquet. With the former you can lofi' (or 
sling) bat and cup ; with the latter you can bat only. It is impossible to say ot how 
many developments the game is capable, but further experiments are, we beheve, con- 
templated next Thursday at the Holyrood Street School Treat to come off at Halfaeld, 
weather permitting.— Chard and Ihninster News. 

Second Keport : — 

We must not omit to mention Mr. GiUingham's new game-or rather one of the 
many varieties of which it is capable-was fairly tried and stood the test wonderfully 
well, all who played being greatly delighted, whilst many others looked on predicting 
great popularity for it when kno^n. 

Tripo may be played with wickets, racquets, or five bats. 




In the last edition I published my trials as an inventor with a view 
to point out where the law should be amended in the new act which was 
soon to be passed. At the same time I was in correspondence with those 
interested in passing the bill. I was thinking of leaving it out in this 
edition, but on second thoughts, as I have had a similar experience under 
the new Patent Act, I have inserted it again, that the young inventor 
may get some idea of the difficulties that stand in his way and for which 
he does not bargain. 

Under the new Act you get a longer time to perfect your invention 
before lodging the final specification. The first cost of patenting is 
lessened, but after four years you have still to pay the .£50 tax and after 
seven years the £100 tax. But, instead of paying it in one lump sum. 
it is made easier by being received in yearly instalments. In case of 
dispute it may be settled before the Comptroller. If outside his juris- 
diction it must take the same course as under the old law, namely, that 
of a Chancery suit, which may, to the poor inventor, mean ruin. I am 
now just paying my hundred pounds tax -on my Patent B.adiator in 
yearly instalments. I paid the £50 in one lump sum after spending 
£500, and before I had seen sixpence profit. What we still contend for 
is this— that the .£50 and .£100 tax should be done away with and that, 
like the Americans, a complete patent should be granted for £7 for a 
term of fourteen or twenty -one years, and a tribunal that will save from 
ruinous expenditure. It is true there is a kind of tribunal held out 
under the new Act, but it is not of the kind that an inventor would 
expect, as the following eperience under the new Act will show : — 

An inventor ignorantly takes out a patent for one (of mine) already 
in force. He manufactures and sells. He is given notice of the in- 
fringement and asked for a meeting to settle the difierence. Counsel is 
consulted and this is decUned. I am now called upon by those working 
my patent— on which £1,000 had been spent— to defend it. As no 
concession is made my patent agent engages counsel and commences an 
action in the High Court of Chancery. On my visit to London, to state 
the nature of my claim, before going to Court, I off"er to come to some 
arrangement, and made another overture to meet it ; this was accepted. 
The original and the infringed article stood side by side. There was 
certainly a modification in the configuration with appendage, but this 
did not afiect the patent proper. In my agent's 20 years' experience 
he said he had never seen a nearer copy. Certainly, said the counsel, it 
is very close, and you had better settle. As the defendant had infringed 
unknowingly I had to treat him as an honest man. So an arrangement 
was come to that he would work the patent and pay me a royalty. _ 

The enmity was at an end and we became friends. He returned with 
me to my hotel and we supped together. Now, I said, why did you not 
come to a settlement before ? Because my agent and counsel would not 
let me All I can say is it would have been ruin to have gone into Court. 
(Now the following is the point I want to arrive at and impress the 
reader with). His reply :— " If it had gone into Court the first thing 
my counsel would have done would have been to try and overthrow the 


patent by proving it was not valid (when the plaintiff had taken out 
one for the same thing.) If they had succeeded I was to pay nothing, 
they were going to have the expenses out of you. But if they failed, 
and the action went against me, I was to become a bankrupt and leave 
you to pay all expenses." mi. n 

This was my experience under the new Patent Law. The Govern- 
ment takes from me X175 for a complete patent and then leaves me to 
protect myself, which I can only do by means of costly litigation. 
What I ar^ue is that when once patent rights are issued to an inventor 
the law, -upon being appealed to, should undertake the cost of prose- 
cuting infringements of that patent just in the same way that persons 
and property are protected by the Criminal Law As the law at 
present stands, if an inventor should fall into the hands of unprincipled 
imitators, and they knowing they have nothing to lose m ca^e of failure 
he may be financially ruined by having 1,o protect his undoubtea legal 

rights. . 

I once knew a man who brought an action against an infringer and 
defeated him ; the trial cost £4,000, and, although he came off victorious, 
it cost him £2,000. You may become a benefactor to your race, yet, m 
evolving your talents, they may cause your utter ruin. I will now pass 
on to my earlier experiences, as published in a former edition. A good 
invention is nearly sure to be infringed and is the first sign of trouble. 

This subject is a deviation from my general prospectus, but as an 
inventor I think it a fitting opportunity to set forth a few facts more 
immediately connected with my own experience. 

Carlisle thanked God he was not born an inventor, and well he 
might. The man who begins to invent, to him it is but the beginning 
of trouble. Unless he has capital, tact, and plenty of pluck, it is 
impossible that he can stand against the contingencies that are likely to 

What I have passed through in my little way is only a tithe of what 
others have had to contend with, many of whom have gone on with 
their inventions until they have beggared themselves and their friends, 
and at last wound up in bankruptcy or died in a mad-house ; few 
inventors have become successful compared to the numbers that have 
been defeated and crushed. 

It is generally known that my original business was boot-making, 
which I followed for some twelve years ; 1 had no idea then of turning 
my attention to Surgical Mechanism or to inventions of any kind. As 
a tradesman's son I had everything that a good home brings. When I 
set out for myself I did so with less than a five-pound note ; thus what 
I have attained has been without pecuniary help from any one, and is 
simply the outcome of cultivated talent, individual effort, close appli- 
cation, and unswerving perseverance. 

A few years after I started in my present business I invented my 
Patent Combined Couch (see page 119). This took me some consider- 
able time to work out, and by the time I had secured my patent my 
first savings were spent. 




My Couch Patent was soon infringed, and even my prospectus copied. 
There was a deal of subtlety and cunning about the infringers. Their 
testimonials had neither name nor address, but the supposed purchasers 
stated that they had been using the couch five and ten years, of _ course 
with the idea of nulHfying my patent, which had only been out eighteen 
months. When a man intends to rob you he will scheme a lie to cover 
it ■ with some the most criminal thing is to tell the truth. I apphed to 
a London solicitor to stop the infringers. These pirates evaded the 
difficulty by saying they were agents. The names of the manufacturers 
were demanded, and they were severally reminded that they . were 
responsible for selling an infringed article. They declined .o give the 
manufacturers' names. What course was I to take? My so icitor 
repHed, "You must talce out an injunction against them; that will cost 
vou £49 " (Well, I had spent aU my spare money, what was 1 do do 

What then ^ " " Your first hearing will cost you one hundred pounds, 
and your second hearing wiU cost you another hundred pounds, that is 
£249 " " Well, suppose 1 defeat my opponents and 1 find they are men 
of straw, what then?" "Why, then you must pay aU expenses 
This took the wind out of me, and my position can be better felt than 
described. I had to throw up and come home and bear it. i 
sa?d, "if this is what the Government calls protection it tends rather 
to cripple the energies of the inventive and the industrious, and it does 
not end here : if you defeat one you may have to fight a number, and 
so you may go on until you have spent your all to keep your own 

Now,t/e\rst hundred pounds an inventor saves is generally the 
hard Jt earned money in the whole of his life, and when swamped m 
thi way it takes all tL heart out of him. I have -^or^ ^^l^^^l^^ 
like a rat in a trap— I could see my position through the bars of the 
cage but where deUverance was coming from I was at a loss to know, 
but it has come, and I trust others will profit by my experience 

The Government of this country takes from every ^^^^^^^or if he 
car'rS o^t his patent, ^175 (in one o i. three i^^^^^^^^^ 

l^dir^^^^^^^^^ - ;ice the in^ntion 

Fts production th^re is the engraving, printing, advertising -^^^^^^^^ 

rib you, taSmofe than the generality of inventors are possessed of to 
thYs :^ut;y the patent grant lasts for ^^^y^^;^ ^SSS 

Tribunal provided a? which our differences 

out the spirit of i-f.~^^^^ for at 

country. In tJns dzrecion fjj^l^ ji^^^^ inventive power is lying 



ff.v mventinc- my Combined Couch the Northjleei 
A few years aftex ^^jentm my ^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^ 

foundered almost close to sliore. wiju g ^^^^ 
1 then devised a ^-^^^/^^f - ^ t;':;ntrivances have been for 
devising means '^f^^l^^^^'^Z '^^^^^ consisted of a life- 

the amelioi-ation of human suti^^^^^ ordinary 

preserving waistcoat or ^^^^^^^J^^^^ ""-l, be inflated with air 

article of dress without "^^o^J®^^^'';;- , „ passenger is pitched into 
from the mouth in ^-"^l';^:^^^:^ L a'cTk fnd floa'ts head and 
the water head d^^^^^^^^^ i-ention because of my 

shoulders out of ^^^^f^; ^ manufacturer and dedicated it to the 

former exper^nc^^^^^^^^^^ Royal Humane Society and the 

0 W'TrdVinTat^that time it wa. engraved and pubhsliea .^^e 
% it.h Mprhanic and Mirror of Science for February 7th, l«7d. Alter 
SfnSg 0 t^Northflei a meeting was caUed and convened in 
London a^^^^^^^^ London Tav'ern, for displajdng Hfe-preserving apparatus^ 

1 attended that meeting and found nothing approaching my own 

'Xwghteen months after, 1 was pacing down the streets of Bristol 
and l lw my invention placarded as Shonrock's patent hfe-preseiving 
and i saw ^7 ,^p.Ved crew were floating head and shoulders out 
T^^^'^:^^^^^^^ - their shoulder! I wrote for Shox^ock's 
spelmcatir S was filed 18 months after my invention, and I sent 
SmXto^'apts of the original page of the Enghsh Mechamo m which 
- th^art'clS invention were set forth; I also set my patent agent 
+n +>.;^ and told them I had dedicated it to the pubhc, and that 
:^e stey'g" eft u^^^^^^ claim a share in the profits; they tried 
^ignore Ind wriggle out of it, and cynically asked me if I would like 

""irinve'ntSlatehasbee^ at the various Aquariums 

in our large cities, but, of coui-se, the real inventor gets nothing. 


About three years ago I invented my Heat Radiator which was 
intuitively suggested to me while contriving an arrangement for moulding 
surgical splints Proving this to be a useful invention (see pages 132 
I33I I did not like to let it slip through my fingers m the same way as 
my life-preserver, and notwithstanding my first experience lookout 
another patent. I have often felt that it would have been better foi 
me to have left invention alone, and have given all my energies to my 
surdcal business, but one of my reasons for bringing them forth is, that 
they may be a source of income when my energies fail ; when I cease to 
stand at my bench, and work in my surgical department, my income 
ceases, as I depend mainly on my individual efforts ; thus a royalty on 
an invention would not only be acceptable, but a legitimate remuneration 
Instead of being what I anticipated, it proved to be one of the greatest 
sources of vexation and trial I ever experienced, which experience and 
difficulties I will give by way of precaution to young inventors. Betore 
taking out my patent, I sent for Barlow's book " How to make money 


out of patents ; " I followed his advice, and instructed my patent agents 
to search the Blue Books or Specifications of other inventors, and see 
what had been done in a similar direction, so as to escape collision if 
patented before, and thus save trouble and litigation. My patent agents 
made a lengthy search and caught up all in the Blue Books in any way 
bordering on my invention j finding nothing hke my own and seeing 
that it merited a patent, on their recommendation it was taken out. It 
was Barlow's advice, combined with the tact and experience of my 
patent agents, that enabled me to defeat all my opponents. I would 
recommend Bai-low's book* to every inventor; read it before you 
attempt to take out a patent ; it is worth its weight in gold : it is full of 
instruction apart from the advice it gives. Also get a good agent, not 
a cutter, for if you pay a little more it is real gain. 

My Radiator had not long been introduced before there followed a 
series of troubles, and in quick succession. Having my protection, I 
was anxious to take the advantage of an exhibition. I exhibited before 
I secured my seal, which- inventors should not do, as another may copy 
your invention, secure the seal first, and do you out of your invention. 
Here the law must he amended; many an inventor has been taken 
advantage of in this way. At this Exhibition a rival inventor met with 
one of my prospectuses ; he had taken out a patent just before me ; 
ignorant of each other, both our patents were lodged at the office about 
the same time. He saw there were certain features about my invention 
bordering on his own ; he hastened to secure his seal (you cannot mam- 
tain a case in court untH you have done this), and then entered an 
action against me, tried to clutch my invention and tack it on to his 
own • this was a bit of sharp business practice. There was some smart 
fighting, counsel hired, and a meeting held in London. Now my agents 
fought all my battles for me, and this is the advantage of having good 
accents My opponent was asked what he claimed ; he stated. A Blue 
Book was at once produced which showed him that he had no right to 
his claim ; it had been patented long since and had expired. Of course 
he was defeated. 

As a Surgical Mechanist, one sees the sympathetic side of human 
nature : when sufferers come to be helped they tell you their trouble and 
get you to relieve their burdens ; but if you want a few lessons m sharp 
business practice, become a patentee, and an inventor and human nature 
will present to you a totally difi^erent aspect; you will see how men wiU 
shift and twist to gain an advantage, and how exceeding y shy they are 
of any invention that taies their line of business. I wdl detad a few 
facts in point, and you will see that self-interest is perpetual motion 1 
would first say that after inventing my heating arrangement, fioin 
necessity I invented my own lamp and burn^'^, as 1 was limited to 
power and could not get manufacturers to make what I required. With 
S7fi" t heating ax^nlement (of which there are 20 different onesin my 
specification) I could place it over an ordinary duplex lamp and without 
inteSng ^vith the light, bake a 4 lb. loaf with the heat that escaped 
•E. Marlborough & Co., 4, Warwick Lone, London. 



i,-„T.f hPit and bake at the same time. I 

^^^^^ ' 

and utilising the heat j^^^^ of high-power oil 

.'^^^^the^a^nte u^^^^ by such simple means ; they 

stoves, but they 1^^^^ nev -^^gntion and introduce it. . 

would be pleased to take up my ^^^^ , ^ j^^^ the simple 

- read human nature 1 

I will now give y°^\^^7,^^^;^i^^^7°^^„ i^^ention into the hands of a large 
I was -commenc ed to pla^^^^ arrangements and asked him to 
manufacturer; I ^^''^.'^^^''^^^^1^^ just thinking of bringing out 
take it up; he ^.'^^f, .^^/^^^ ^anee he thing should have struck 
something of the kind ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ set to work, and to 

him at that moment) Un seeing my ^ „„j nn the top of one 

evade my patent -nstruc^ed a T ppe a^^^^^^^^^ 

of his oil stoves, and wrote to say that ne P 6 ^ ^^^^ 

the top of one o ^-^f--,:^^^^^^^^^^^ and he did 

distributor but he coiUd not see wh 

not see why he could l^^d many patents). I 

- r.:pv3;i ~~ ^^^^^^^ 

wouia noi ma end covers, which was optional, I had 

my patent (but by moving difficulty there 

the T, but analysis was arrested) If ther^ ^^7 admission was 

rtbt and threatened with proceedings; all my books demanded 
a?d aU profits and royalties received from my agents are to be handed 
over to them My opponents are asked what they claim and to favour 
us w?th tlenumber of their specification, which was sent for. Th^ 
wL In ordinary oil stove with a vertical pipe at the back, and a wmd- 
S at the top to prevent the wind blowing down. On the ground 
t\at they had a pipe to the stove they claimed every other stove that had 
a pipfLgardless of its arrangement or action ; where xs the common 
• sense of the opposition ? My invention was at the antipodes of theirs 
n arrangement and action, for my chimneys or out ets were turned 
upsSe down. They sent their agent to London and thought they were 
Sg to settle me, but they found it was of no use for they had not 
the Ihost of a chance, and like 6thers were defeated. Some will try 
and claim anything if thoy see it will answer their purpose to do so. 



Now follows another trouble of a still more serious nature. In quick 
succession one difficulty follows another. My London manufacturers 
are exhibiting at a show ; they are ordered by a rival inventor to 
remove the Radiators from the exhibition (which they decline to do) ; 
they are also threatened with proceedings ; I am threatened as well as 
my manufacturers, Two solicitors are engaged in Town to begin the 
attack on us in right earnest as infringers of patent rights. The mistake 
with most patentees is, that they cannot define their own inventions, 
neither can they define what they claim. It- was the case with this 
opponent. Now this becomes a serious matter. When a man infringes, 
you take out an injunction against him, and it is a case for the Court 
of Queen's Bench, but when there is a dispute between two patentees 
who have secured the royal seal, it is a case for Chancery, as the Queen 
is not supposed to grant her seal for that which is not vahd. A suit m 
Chancery is ruinous even to the man who wins. It is not simply the 
going into Court, but what it costs you to keep your own ; and here the 
law must he mnended and a cheafer tribunal provided or some other 

measure taken. i j t 

There is no alternative for me, I must fight ; on one hand i have a 
Chancery suit before me, on the other a number of manufacturers who 
have been to some considerable outlay. With the Egj^tians behind me 
and the Red Sea in f ront-what am I to do ? What with this incessant 
irritation, what with my surgical business and the close application and 
hard work it requires, and the care of a number of patients on me with 
their intricate cases, I am tried exceedingly. But here Barlow and my 
patent agent steps in : the latter is in possession of the specifications o 
my rival! and, further, is in possession of the specifications of a patent 
heating arrangement like those of my opponents but long since expired. 
The attention of their solicitors was called to these specifications ; this 
settled the matter, and they flung up the sponge. ^.f.^^jncr 
Now follows another side to this question. Instead of defending 
myself I have to attack. Not a few are under the impression that they 
can copy any invention for private use; this is \Pf .^^^^^^^ ^^^^'^^^^^^^ 
• If a thing is so simple that anyone can make it what is the use of the 
patent 1 Why is it allowed ? It is not allowed by patent law. Why, 
then is not the infringer stopped? Because of the expense to be 
incurred If a man intuits you, you take out a summons for a few 
Sngs and you get a hearing for a small sum, but if a private person 
coS^ your inLtion,^ he is not worth ten shillings, and is obstinate 
7:111 take out an injunction against him, rnl'1.1 
thus the law encourages petty infringers, who ^-^^^^^^^^^f^' ^J^^^'^^ 
law must he amended. There are not a few ^^.^^ J^'^^t^em 
this way, and because I do not choose to spend £49 to stop each ot them 
(and bear all expenses of trial if they have ^^^^^^"g^^*^^^!^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
to go on. When a wealthy man infringes m this way you can attack 

him, hut when otherivise it is a loss. , , 

tLti there is copying a patent, and trying to evade the law oy 



n«tPnt and there may he twenty different arrangements, but the same 
Son and la^^^^^^^ into operation. My uprights for example in 
^me of my arrangements are round, sometimes twisted or fluted. Biit 
onTman iJmakin'g them square for his own private use, with the idea 
of evading the patent ^ this configuration does not affect m any way 
e thir the prindple or working, and if he understood the science of the. 
invent on/comm^on sense would see differently, but it is blind when 
iniustice steps in. Now, there are all kinds of robbers. Some, m order 
to'pluck L Lention, will bring out what they caU an ^-provement 
and patent it, with the idea of covering the original invention. Beie 
ZlL .^ust he a.^eM. If it is really an . -provement, the -ve-toi 
should not be allowed to use the original without handing over to its 
inventor a sum of money or a royalty for using it. But many a man, 
after years of study, has been robbed in this way. In wi;iting as I do 
I do not pretend to exhaust this question ; it is many-sided ; i simply 
throw out suggestions that my own personal experience has taught me 
for the guidance of others. _ . 

Now follows another <;lass of trials and they are incessantly cropping 
UP In my own case I granted a number of licenses to manufacturers 
who take in a certain radius of country ; when they go over each other s 
boundary, there is jealousy and division, even in some oises leadmg to 
law • I am appealed to by both parties to decide the battle— not 
pleasant Another manufacturer takes the license, say for three years. 
He does no business, he locks up the whole district of 50 miles radius, 
taking in aU the towns within that circuit, and, having the license, he 
will not allow another to be granted to one who will work it ; this dog- 
in-the-manger course is awfully trying to an inventor, for some would 
take the license to keep others out of it. This reminds me of an 
invention I brought out some years ago. I did not patent it. A 
certain firm asked for it, and said they would push it. I said I would 
give it them if they would give it my name ; this was promised. Months 
went on ; I saw nothing and heard nothing of it. What did they do ? 
They gave my invention a pat on the head, put it on the shelf to keep 
someone else out of it, and pushed theirs for the same purpose, and 
selling at three times the price. So with my heating arrangement ; a 
large church can be heated by it for from ^12 to X20 when rightly 
arranged : a man who takes the license wiU not push it if he can lay 
down hot water apparatus at £150 or ^200— not likely ; this shows the 
importance (in competition) of a patentee working his own invention, 
if possible, instead of placing it in the hands of others. An inventor 
has. to prepare for aU kinds of contingencies and vexations that he does 
not bargain for when he begins. Up to the third year of my patem 
Radiator, I spent ^500 on it, and before I could realise sixpence profit 
the Government asked mo for £50 stamp duty ; this they screw out of 
me after all this battling. One estimates what it cost in money, but do 
not know what it costs in mental strain, in breaking one's peace, and in 
loss of nervous energy. Instead of the Government taking X50, they 
should give an inventor £50 to encourage him, as they do in school 
grants ; but no, they take this money and place it into the consolidated 
funds to support wars and bloodshed. If the Government would grant 



to every poor inventor the loan of -£50 and a free grant, on proof that 
his invention was good, and give him the chance to repay in instalments, 
it would be far more commendable. 

Before leaving this question of invention, I will state one or two 
things that have come under my notice, in which direction there must 
be an amendment of thtt law. The Government, in the dockyards or 
elsewhere, can take any man's invention and use it (so I have been 
given to understand) without paying a royalty to the inventor. Now, 
'all the officers of the State are paid out of the revenues of the State for 
their services, but the Government not only levies a heavy tax on the 
patentee, and takes .£175 from him in fees, but takes his invention and 
uses it without giving him a farthing ; here the law must be amended. 
I could extend my suggestions further, but I will now turn your 
attention to another class of difficulties which are not less trying, and 
have more to do with the introduction of an invention and bringing it 
before the public. I mean 

Exhibitions are good institutions when rightly, skilfully and justly 
managed, but they are too often the field for party favour, intrigue and 
injustice. For anything of merit, I prefer an exhibition where there 
are no awards, and where all stand on neutral ground, so that every- 
thing may stand on its own merits, for many awards are granted to 
things that have no merit. 

"When an inventor has brought out an article, unless he gets some 
house with a good connection to take it up, he must call pubhc attention 
to it himself ; this means time, energy and money. Promiscuous adver- 
tising is no good; extensive advertising is beyond the young inventors 
means. Personal contact is the thing ; I have always done more by 
this, which costs little, than by the many pounds I have spent m 

advertisements , . . i i. t -n c 4. 

I will give a few of my experiences at exhibitions, but 1 will_ first 
make an assertion : when you see a long list of patrons and distinguished 
names heading an exhibition prospectus, it is no guarantee that you 
wiU get justice. Many of these gentlemen who give their names and 
monly as promoters of a good scheme, would never do it if they knew 
how some inventors are treated. Where medals are given it is no 
proof that it is the best articles get them, as at times the way m which 
they are secured is in no way justifiable ; in fact, experienced manufac- 
tures and the intelligent public fight shy fl^''^ ^^^^'^^f^J^'^J^^ 
difficulty is to know where to put confidence and how to get fair play. 

I wai exhibiting once. On entering one mormng an exhibitor ^^^^^^ 
"There is tipping going on here." " What do you mean ? " "Bribing. 
■ " Nonsense '^I saic^ and pooh-poohed it. The next day from another 
part of th:'exhibition I LrAe same. " Well I tell you ^^^^^^^ ^ you 
have not a friend on the committee, you won't get anything. lb s 
^ Jatirsurprised me ; I find it is largely done, but how -olf g^^^^^^^^^^^ s 
sense of richt 1 A friend of mine told me he was once exhibiting , 
ome gentlemen came to him one day and said , that if he would give them 
a certainsumof money they would put him in the way of getting an 
award, and this is not unfrequently how it is done. 



■Further if you exhibit in competition, you must attend yourself ; I 
Jitne' occS: invited to exhV I could not gc^ au^e 
send exhibits and pay expenses. ^.^y^^^^^W^.T l^u no exhibits 

r.r?. fsitd mfr^onTa: i 

S w that I should have the same advantages a. others. I sent _ The 

Stion over, the secretary writes g.^^/.^J^.^^^U . oJ 

exhibits for a report; at the time my cases had just ^een returned on 
nnpnina them I found they were sent back as I had packed tnem , ^ne 
pSnf case had not been^opened." This is how inventors who canno 
E the W are humbugged. If you wish to get on you must not 

'"f^u'now'give two incidents connected with two of my licenced 
manrcturers.' One was exhibiting my invention -th h.s own ^^^^^^^ 
in the North: they were kept at the exhibition, with attendant, ten 
ve L on expanses." A day wL appointed for the -ecf - t^^^^^^^^^ 
goods in the manufacturer's section. Accordingly, he arranged to be 
f^ere at the appointed time, but these gentlemen were ^ejeral days 
behind their time; my representative could not ^fj^^^^/^^^.^^^^ 
weeks of expense, those who were not present to explain their exhibits 

^TnSfoYmTmtlctnrei. attend an exhibition in the West 
and went to some considerable expense in fitting up ^^^^^^^g^^?^' ^^^^^ 
included. Three months passed over before the awards were given, and 
instead of noticing his ranges and smoke-consummg ^PP^^^'^J);^' 
were passed over,Ind they gave him a certificate for a Bradford wastimg 
machine, which was put in by chance to fill up the space. 

Oh th; vexations and trials of exhibiting ! But the worst treatment 
I ever received myself was at the hands of the Smoke-Abatement Com- 

^Twa^l^ w'^to exhibit my heating arrangements at this exhibition. 
I was informed that all inventions would stand on their own merits , 
that they would be fairly tested, and awarded accordingly, i exhibitect 
several an-angements ; they were daily in action for nine or ten weeks^ 
I also demonstrated that these cylinders, if used with proper care may 
be in action for years and the insides not carbonised or soiled, and also 
showed how the products could bo separated and earned off without 
vitiating the air. As I had gi-anted a number of licenses to manufac- 
turas, I need not have spent sixpence, but simply held vip my hand and 
take my royalty ; but this exhibition being a national affair, 1 tnougnt 
it a fitting opportunity to exhibit my invention and stand on my own 
merits— a fair field and no favour. This exhibition led me into an 
expenditure of £15. A time was appointed for testing my exhibits ; 
accordingly, my London agents, Messi-s. Ti-eggon and Co., sent a man 
from their works and fitted up the gas fittings in the testing-house at 
their own expense ; the day was fixed for testing, a month befoi-e the 


close of the exhibition, but it was put oftand off until the close. I went 
up to Town to pack up, found no test had taken place, and complamed : 
I was told by the engineer that if I would wait a day or two, it should 
be attended to. Went to the testing house ; there were the ga-s-httings 
lis arranged a month previously. I was told it could not be attended to 
for some time ; I could not stay about on hotel expenses, and accordingly 
packed up and came home. What with the expense I was led into the 
expense of advertisements, and of the intelligent ofhcer provided by 
Messrs Treggon and Co., this exhibition cost us one hundred pounds. 

I came home and wrote complaining to the Committee, when my 
difficulties were explained away by their telling me that if I would send 
my exhibits on to Manchester, where the exhibition was^ removed, roy 
arrangements should be tested. I need not tell you that I writhed with 
Ldigfation; but, of course, there is no redress to be had from these 
eentkmen. What did I say ? " Gentlemen, handsome is that handsome 
does " Thus one has to grin and bear it. How can just awards be 
given if exhibitors are treated thus, and I do not stand alone m this 
Sitter What right have those who get up exhibitions to drag 
Sventors about on Expenses in this way? What do they know about 
ihlir struggles and trials? They are not the men to make laws 
and ruSs for hard-working men; their intentions may be good, but 
they had better keep theS- services and make way for others who 
know better how to deal with inventors. After being treated thus, I 
was^ked if I would contribute to a testimonial ? What do you think 
Tf it reader? These gentlemen seem to promote one another at the 
?LV inventor's expensl At the above exhibition I invented my open 
rrrjrfor consuming its own smoke and preventing unnecessary 
wast'etf heat Sp the ^Stmney, for which I took out another paten (see 
waste 01 nea p exhibiting at this exhibition I had 

crubuiii^, J- onto mv Radiator, as tnat wm, J. 

s^,^Si^t^?;i;rf w^^^ 

this 1 Had I been dependent on w e,e this would 

xny Surgical business to support r^^^ 

have been beggared Ihis enas or f ^ ^^^^ 

inventor. What is looming m ^be future is ^^f^^ frightened out 
come in contact with three young ^"^^^l^^^;' the other has 

of patenting until there -^usi^r " I wo" discourage you, 
patented and IS filled with enthusiasm. 1 

this I have taken out two more ! 




I have seen some very remarkable cases of limbless workers. Once, 
when I was walking through the streets of Paris, I saw a man, without 
any arms from the shoulder-joints, seated on a table, drawing with his 
feet. I asked him to sketch me a bird, which he did, putting in the 
colours in flourishing style. At another time I saw a Bulgarian lady, 
who had lost her arms from the shoulder, using her feet in a most 
remarkable way to knit, sew and cut with scissors. I asked her to cut 
me out some designs in paper, which she did whilst I stood by ; but the 
following will show how marvellously any loss is compensated for by the 
gift of extraordinary powers. I have seen the last remarkable case 
mentioned in this list — John Carter's Life and Drawings — they are 
marvellous productions. 

There is now making a tour of Europe, exhibiting in the different towns, a limbless 
man, who does many things that must be seen to he believed. He was bom without 
either legs or arms, and yet he can write letters, cut paper with scissors, pour water from 
a bottle into a glass, eat with a fork or spoon, take his watch from his pocket, open it 
and put it hack, thread a needle, and fire a pistol ! His name is Nicolia Wassiliewitch 
Kobelkoff, and he was bom at Troizk, in Siberia, in 1852, a fourteenth child, all 
his brothers and sisters being properly formed. In 1876 he married an Austrian 
woman, and by her had five children, all of whom were fully developed. Kobelkoff 
has the rudiments of legs — one thigh being six inches long, the other being about two 
inches longer — but for a right arm he has merely a conical mound, and for a left arm 
a rounded bone representing the humerus, and with these stumps and their atrophied 
muscles to conduct an entertainment is not easy. However, the Eussian manages to 
make himself fairly interesting. He sits at a table, fixes a pen between his cheek and 
arm, and writes away in a good, clear, commercial hand. And with the same com- 
bination of cheek and shoulder he does most of the other things, the most seemingly 
difficult being that of feeding himself. The way he threads a needle is to take it in 
his mouth and stick it in his jacket, and then putting the thread in his mouth pass it 
through the eye. He can draw passably well, and he draws as he v.Tites. The 
strangest thing is to see him load a pistol, aim it at a light candle, and shoot the light 
out. He even tries some acrobatic performances, but these are not very stiikiug, 
consisting merely of jumping off his chair and doing a sort of sack race across the floor. 

It is a significant fact that if a man is crippled, the more crippled he is the better 
chance there is of his getting a living. Even if charity is appealed to there is most 
chance for the most afflicted. Kobelkoff seems, without limbs, to earn a very com- 
fortable livelihood — a better one indeed than many thousands who are fully furnished, 
And 80 it has always been. In Brittany, about a dozen years ago, there was a girl 
without limbs whose parents made quite a fortune in showing her at fairs. And that 
reminds us of the Dutchman mentioned by old Stow, the chronicler, who, with his two 
arm stumps, could keep a cup of tea ur> in the air, throwing it from stump to stump 
like a professional juggler; and who shot with arrows and went through the soldiers' 
drill of the period. Very like Kobelkoff, and helping himself in the same way, was 
Matthew Buchinger, whose portrait is in the British Museum. And we hear m our 
own days of a certain nobleman, without arms or legs, who lived in a basket, and drove 
his horse from reins fixed to his shoulders. And then there is the well-known case' of 
Mr. Kavanagh, M.P., who was one of the competitors in our own competitions, and 
who won a good place, though he had no arms. 

One of Watteau's students was Cajsar Ducomot, who was bom without arms, and 
with only rudimentary legs, and yet carried off all the prizes at Lille, won gold medals 
in Pans, and had pictures in the Louvre. He used to hold the pallette with one foot- 
stump and use the brush with the other. A slender scaffold was built in front of his 
easel, and on this he writhed and twisted, climbed and crouched, leaving traces of colour 
wherever he passed, traversing the canvas with the swiftness of a fly upon the wall. 



At Antwerp recently there was an artist who copied the masterpieces of Rubens, and 
yet had no hands. All his work was done with his toes, and so well did he paint that 
his pictures fetched a higher price for their artistic merit than those of any other artist 
in the city. On the foot with which ho shook hands he wore a Llack glove. _ There 
are many cases of women sewing with their toes ; and there is one remarkable instance 
of an armless watchmaker, who used to take watches to pieces and clean them with his 
toes. In the London streets, during the last year or so, a man has planted himself in 
quiet corners netting with his toes ; and writing with the toes is an ordinary per- 
formance that anyone can do with a little practice. 

One of the most extraordinary cases of work done by a cripple was, however. that 
of John Carter, a velvet weaver, who fell from a tree, broke his neck, and yet survived, 
paralysed from his collar-bone downwards. He had no feeling in his body or limbs, 
and could even be pinched or bruised without knowing anything about it. For fifteen 
years he lived in bed, at first reading then painting, holding his brushes in his hps. 
His copy was hung by tapes frosi the roof of his bed, and after a time he had a desk 
made by a friend under his own directions, on which his drawing paper was secured by 
pins It stood beside his right shoulder, about six inches from his face. _ The pencil 
with which he drew the outlines was placed in his mouth and guided by his lips. The 
rest of the work was carried out with very fine camel' s-hair brushes, the cheap ones 
which may be brought in a country shop. 

After years of patient endeavour he could copy accurately, line for line, the finest 
engravings • and these copies fetched good prices in America, where many of them were 
taken Considering that no line once made could be erased, and that he could not 
mpaqure or space out his work, the accuracy which distinguished him is wonderful 
masterpi^ece was a copy of a "Virgin and Child," after Albert Durer m which 
Pverv line is as if photographed, true in direction, weight, and sweH, iuid delicate as 
Bilk narticularly in the veU, which loses nothing in transparency. To draw such lines 
the hard metal is not easy, but to draw them with a brush held in the hps on paper 
resting on a litUe desk in bed, is enough to make us wonder of what the human frame 
is capable if only directed with perseverance.— Boy's Own Taper. 



. 73, 74, 75, 76 

Affections and Injuries of the Knce-joiut • • ■ • • ; . 104 

. 18, 22 

. 18, 19 
18, 22, 23 

. 76, 77 
80, 81 

AneCUUlia aiiu. -■■".1 _ . .. . . ~n 'a ^iT 

Affections of the Feet and Toes . ■ • , . 47, 48, 49, 51, o2, 00, 06 01 

Affections of the Hip-Joint • ■ ■ ■ • 

Air Cushions. . " 
Amputation at the Ankle-joint • • 
Amputation at the HiP-.f!'^*. . , ' ' 
Amputation at the Should^r-P^^^^ 
Amputation of a part of the Foo . 
Amputation through the lvnee-]oiut 
iZutations through the Wnet-jomt 
Anchylosis of the Hip-joint 
Anchylosis of the Knee-joint 

Angular Curvature . . ■ • • • . . ,,,.17 

iSon "SS Le,s, Construction, and Points of Amputation, &c. U. 16, H 
Artificial Hands and their Construction • • • • ' ' " " . 100, 101 

irflScS Human Eyes and Excis.on ot the Eye . ,0, 21 

Artificial Legs and their Cost, kc. ■■ ■■ _ 127 

S'ilKs ™d .h«i, co;«tt,,,. fo;.-b,„k» .»>™- AvcU ofFoot ^ .03, 104, 100 
Bowed Legs, Rickets • • ^ • • • • • • . . . . 82 

CpTvical Curvature . . • • • • ^ '■' ■ ^ ' ' . . • 9* 

Contmctions and Weakness of the Knee-jomt .. • 96 

Contraction of the Tendon Achilles .. ■■ • • • 112 

Crutches . • • • ■ • " •. ' ' ' ' . . . . 32, 33 

Deficiency of hoth Hands and one Arm •• •■ • 32 

Deficiency of part of the Hand (hngei-S; . . • • • • • _ .^y^ 72, 91, 92 

Difficult Patients . . • • • • • • ' ' ' " . . . . 67 

Dislocations of the Hip-jomt. . . ^ ■ : • ' " ; " . _ 44 99 

Displacement of the Luna Cartilage ot Knee-jomt . • • • y 

Douhle Amputation ahove and belovr Knee • - • • • • 11 

Double Amputation ahove Ankle-jomt 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 19, 20 

Douhle Amputation below Knee . . , , ; ifi w .. 30 
Double Amputation of the Arms above and belo^> Elbo^^ • . • • 

Double Amputation of the Arms above Elbow .,g^ .,3^ 33 

Double Amputation of the Fore-Anns . . . . _ 

Elastic Stockings and Knee-caps . . • - • • • ' _ II3 

Electric and Galvanic Batteries • • ' • 34 

Excision of the Elbow-jomt . • • ■ • • 77 

Excision of the Knee-joint ■ • ' • ' ' _ . 58 

Fracture of the Neck of Ihigh-bouf .. .. ..44,99 

Fracture of the Patella .. V - ' .. 44 

Fractures of the Thighs and Legs (vanous; 6 13, 15, 33, 36 

Freaks of Nature 42 

Gillingham's Ilip-Instrumcut . . • . • • 124 

Gillingham's Patent Combined Couch 

Gillingham's Patent Firo Escape . . ig.^ 

Gillingham's Patent Radiator (various) 

Gillingham's Round Swing 

Gillingham's Spine Suspendor 123 

Hints to Patients (also see regulations) 69, 70, 71 

Hoi-je Bean Extraction (•■) 

Infantile Paralysis of one and both legs . . ^o' ri 

Infantile Paralysis (one leg) o6, OJ, 

J. G.'s First Splint 

Knock-knees.. .. •• ■• ■• •• • ■ ■ ' o- 
Latcral Curvature .. 

LofTel— Recreative Game 

Mechanical Fingers. . .. •• •• •■ •• •• •• •• ' 

Miscellaneous Inventions .. .. •• ■■ •• •■ ■• ^ 

Non-union of the Humerus (Arm above Elbowl <54 

Non-union of the Leg 4^' t^' Vi 

Non-unions of the Thigh 'I \ c)o 

Opinions of the Press ' in 

Paralvsis of the Leg and Spine from Injury -, qq 

Posterior Curvature 82, 83, 84 

Price List . . . . ■ ■ • ■ • ■ ■ ■ • • • ■ • • • • 

Psychology, Synopsis of a Work on Appencrx 

Regulations, Terms, and Hints . . . • • • • ■ • • • • 

Round Shoulders .. .. ■• •'• •• •• •• 

Rupture of the Capsule Ligament of the Hip-joint Co 

Rupture of the Tendon Achilles 96 

Single Amputations above Elbow . . . . . . • . • ■ • • . . 37, 38 

Single Amputations above Knee .. .. .. •• •• •• zi, ^cs, Z4 

Single Amputations below Knee . . . . . . . . ■ • • • . . ..6, .i 

Single Amputations of the Arm below Elbo\v . . . . . . . . 35, 36, 38 

Sore Stumps. . . . . . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • 

Spinal Pressure, Effusion, Concussion, &c. . . . . . . . • 88, 89, 90 

Spine Affections . . . . . . • • •• • • • • • ■ • • • 78, 79 

Spontaneous Fractiu-e of the Thigh-bone . . . . . . . . • ■ 46 

Sprains of the Knee . . . . • • ■ • • • • • • • 

Stricture . . . . • • ■ • ^ 

Talipes (foot turned over on the ankle) . . . . . . • . • • • • 97 

Testimonials from Surgeons . . . . • . • • • • • • - • 39, 40 

The Blind to See 1 29 

The Trials of Inventors 143 

Triple Cases — Two Legs and Arm . . .. .. •■ 6, L3 

Trusses and ruptures . . . . • ■ • • • • 107 

"Weak Arch of Foot 98 

"Weak Legs — Mechanical Cases (various) . . . . . . . . . . 93 

"White Swelling of the Knee-joint . . . . • • . . . . 94 

"Wry Neck and Drop Neck 91 

Urinals n?. 

IVi/i shorllv be published, a revised and cnlaroed edition of Mr. J. 
(nllin-ilia}iis work on " The Scat of (he Soul, ' published in iSyo, and his ivork on 
" l^sveho/oi^y," in iS,SS. Facts mid infcrejiccs o leaned J ^oni those who have lost their 
limbs, the paralytic, and those icho have been depir.'cd of their seJiscs. 


" This is one of those extraordinary works which occasionally issue from 
our Press It appears to be a complete ott<t Md^-id-i -Theology. Biology, 
Mechanical Surgery, and what not- "—/'At' Stieii/ijir A'eji/.w. 

" One of the most re.narkable books we hMve s;en for a long time.' — 7/;c' 
l^iUraiy World. 

"One of the most remarkable books I have ever rc;ad."— /V/t- Inli Sfrjeant Co.w 
" We recommend a persual of Mr. Gillingham's paniphlet. which is carefully 

written by one who has devoted much time to the study and investigation of the 

subject.' — Clitt<<li Opinion. 

"' This is a profoundly thoughtful little book ; it is s 3 novel alike in respect of its 
/acts, Its arguments, and ics authorship, that I am sure ojr readers will thank me for 
introducing it to their notice. '— 'I li£ lum-r: n-id Auul 

'■ There is some very fine reading m M . Oi'Iingh^.m's httle work, and doubt- 
less such of our readers as are interested in the ">■[ alter and Life" discussion will 
become possessed of it,"— 6//,v//-t/.' M^>h,tii>i and W'oild oj Saena. 

'■ This book is of absorbing interest, treating as ii does of questions the most 
momentous to men. The object of it is to prove tie existence of the Soul by 
logical inferences drawn from observations made by the Author. Every page of this 
little work is deeply interesting to the earnest searcher after truth, and will abundantly 
repay perusal."— /7/c- l\ill'iii-n lunc.-.- 

Reviewed also in Mr. Serjeant Cox's work, "The Mechanism of M?:i ; 
what am I ?" 


[Reprinted from Thi Chard and Ilminsler News, 
Nov. 14TH, 1903.] 

Mr. James Gillingham, surgical mechanist, of 
this town, recently forwarded some photographs of 
patients to whom he has supplied artificial limbs, to 
Her Majesty the Qaeen, whose interest in hospital 
work, and extreme solicitude for all classes of the 
King's subjects who may have met with misfortune, a 
so well known. The photographs represent over is 
hundred special cases which have been treated suc- 
cessfully by Mr. GiUintrham : more than thirty of 
these patients have suffered double amputations, and 
have been supplied with artificial limbs which have 
enabled them to follow some useful employment and 
earn a livelihood. There is certainly no surgical 
mechanist living, starting from Mr. Gillingham's 
position in life, who can show such a truly marvellous 
record. Mr. Gillingham has this week received a 
letter from the Hon. Charlotte Knollys, staling that 
she is commanded by the Queen to thank him for the 
interesting photographs which he has been good 
enough to send for Her Majesty's acceptance. 

Some of the double amputation cases, illustrations of 
which were sent to Her Majesty, were treated by Mr. 
Sidney James Gillingham. 


( VP KH Sn 


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